Congress

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1

a type of representation in which legislators simply reflect the views of their constituents

Delegate

2

a type of representation in which legislators exercise judgment independent of their constituents’ views

Trustee

3

a resident of the district or state represented by a member of the House or Senate

Constituent

4

a situation in which different parties control the presidency and at least one of the chambers of Congress

Divided Government

5

the chief officer of the House of Representatives

Speaker of the House

6

the highest-ranking member of the majority party

The House Minority Leader

7

an honorary position that customarily goes to the longest-serving member of the majority party

President Pro Tempore

8

the highest-ranking member of the majority party in the Senate

Majority leader

9

in the Senate and the House, the highest-ranking member of the minority party

Minority leader

10

informal term for any attempt to block or delay Senate action on a bill or other matter by debating it at length, by offering numerous motions, or by other obstructive actions.

Basically, when senators continue speaking to prevent final action on a bill

Filibuster

11

party leaders whose job is to count votes and gather support from party lawmakers

Whip

12

groups of legislators in the House and Senate that deliberate on bills or other measures and make recommendations to the full body

Committees

13

a permanent body within the Congress that evaluates proposals within its jurisdiction, chooses certain bills for consideration, and then revises and reports those bills to the full chamber

Standing Committee

14

a unit of congressional committee that handles a very specific area of policy and legislation

Subcommittee

15

a permanent or temporary committee set up to mount an investigation or to handle a particular issue

Select (or special) committee

16

committees with member from both the House and Senate that carry our studies or administrative tasks

Joint Committees

17

a temporary joint committee that settles differences between Senate and House versions of a bill and recommends a compromise version to the House and Senate

Conference Committee

18

the position of chair that has gone to the majority party member who has served the longest continuously on the committee

Seniority

19

address specific measures before the committee

Legislative hearings

20

focus on how executive agencies are carrying out programs and identify problems that may require further legislation

Oversight hearings

21

often look into scandals or disasters. While investigations may enable members to score partisan political points, they also bring important information to light

Investigative hearings

22

enable Senate committees to check out the president's nominees for key posts

Confirmation hearings

23

dead-period two months before the next Congressional election: November- January

Lame-duck session

24

a draft of a proposal law

Bill

25

a measure in one house that is similar or identical to a bill in the other

Companion bills

26

a resolution passed by both the House and Senate that, like a statute, is subject to a presidential veto. Once enacted, it has the full force of law

Joint resolutions

27

a resolution passed by both the House and Senate that expresses the sentiment of Congress (does not change the law of the land)

Concurrent resolutions

28

a resolution by either the House or Senate that usually addresses a matter affecting only one House (does not change the law of the land)

Simple resolutions

29

the practice whereby the parliamentarian of the House or Senate sends a bill to a committee(s) for consideration

Referral process

30

the process by which a committee or subcommittee proposes changes to a bill

Markup session

31

permit any amendments that are otherwise in order

Open rules

32

forbid all amendments

Closed rules

33

spell out the terms of debate and the negotiated before debate begins

Unanimous Consent Agreements

34

the use of speeches and motions to keep the Senate from voting on a specific bill or presidential appointment

Filibusters

35

congressional review of the activities of federal agencies and programs

Oversight

36

a speech that members of the House of Representatives can give before or after each day's formal session in order to call attention to some matter

Special order speech

37

efforts undertaken by members of Congress to assist constituents, such as intervening with the bureaucracy and bringing home federal projects

Constituency service

38

assistance to constituents in their dealings with federal agencies

Casework

39

when two or more legislators trade votes for each other’s proposals or exchange other legislative favors

Logrolling

40

a derogatory term for projects that benefit specific localities without serving the national interest

Pork barrel

41

a provision of a spending bill that sets aside funds for a specific purpose in a district or state

Earmark

42

the right of members of Congress to send mail to their constituents without paying for the postage

Franking privilege