Activity 1: Identifying Male Reproductive Organs and Gross Anatomy of the Human Male Reproductive System

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1

The reproductive system begins its biological function at the onset of what biological change?

Puberty

2

What are the essential organs of reproduction?

The gonads

3

1. What are the gonads in males?

2. What are the gonads in females?

1. Testes

2. Ovaries

4

The gonads produce what 2 things? (Hint: a type of cells and a certain type of hormones)

1. Gametes or sex cells

2. Sex hormones

5

What are the 2 reproductive roles of the male?

1. Manufacture sperm

2. Deliver them to the female reproductive tract

6

What is the reproductive role of the female?

To produce eggs

7

The combination of sperm and egg produces what? (Hint: a type of egg)

A fertilized egg

8

What is the first cell of a new individual?

A fertilized egg

9

Once fertilization has occurred, the uterus provides what for the embryo

A nurturing, protective environment for the embryo to develop

10

The embryo is later called what?

A fetus

11

The testes produce what 2 products?

1. Sperm

2. Male sex hormones

12

All other reproductive structures of the male reproductive system can be classified under what 2 categories?

1. Ducts

2. Sources of secretions

13

What is the general function of all other reproductive structures of the male reproductive system? (Hint: deliver sperm to 2 general areas)

To deliver sperm safely to the body exterior or female reproductive tract

14

The paired testes lie in what structure?

The scrotum

15

The scrotum lies outside what cavity?

The abdominopoelvic cavity

16

Describe the temperature in the scrotum relative to that of body temperature?

The temperature in the scrotum is slightly lower than body temperature

17

What is the approximate temperature in the scrotum?

About 94 degrees fahrenheit

18

Why is the temperature in the scrotum slightly lower than body temperature?

To produce viable sperm

19

What are the 4 accessory male reproductive structures that form the duct system?

1. Epididymis

2. Ductus deferens

3. Ejaculatory duct

4. Urethra

20

The epididymis forms what sequential portion of the duct system? (Hint: like, first, second, or third..)

The first portion

21

The epididymis provides a site for what?

For immature sperm entering from the testes to mature

22

The ductus deferens is also called what?

Vas deferens

23

In life, the spermatic cord encloses what 3 structures?

1. Ductus deferens

2. Blood vessels

3. Nerves

24

The spermatic cord is made out of what type of tissue?

Connective tissue

25

The terminus of the ductus deferens enlarges to form what region?

The ampulla of the ductus deferens

26

The ampulla of the ductus deferens empties into what duct?

The ejaculatory duct

27

During ejaculation, what propels the sperm through the prostate?

Contraction of the ejaculatory duct

28

The contraction of the ejaculatory duct propels the sperm through the prostate into what part of the urethra?

Prostatic urethra

29

The prostatic urethra then empties into what part of the urethra?

The intermediate part of the urethra

30

The intermediate part of the urethra is also called what?

Membranous urethra

31

The intermediate part of the urethra empties into what part of the urethra?

Spongy urethra

32

The spongy urethra runs from what to what?

The length of the penis to the body exterior

33

What cord is easily palpated through the skin of the scrotum?

The spermatic cord

34

A vasectomy severs what accessory structure of the duct system?

Severs both ductus deferens

35

With a vasectomy, is sperm still produced?

Yes

36

If sperm is still produced with a vasectomy, then why can't a female get pregnant?

The sperm is unable to reach the body exterior because it can no longer travel through the ductus deferens

37

After the vasectomy, what happens to a male? (Hint: think sterility)

A male becomes sterile

38

What are the 3 accesory glands of the male reproductive system?

1. Prostate

2. Seminal glands

3. Bulbo-urethral glands

39

1. How are the seminal glands located in regards to the urinary bladder?

2. Are the seminal glands paired?

1. Posteriorly to the urinary bladder

2. Yes

40

The duct of each seminal gland merges with what accessory of the duct system to form what duct?

Merges with ductus deferens to form the ejaculatory duct

41

1. The secretion of the seminal glands is what pH?

2. The secretion of the seminal glands is what color and texture?

1. Alkaline

2. Thick yellow

42

The secretion of the seminal glands contain what 3 substances?

1. Fructose

2. Citric acid

3. Prostaglandins

43

What is the function of fructose and citric acid in the secretion of the seminal glands?

To nourish the sperm

44

What is the function of prostaglandins in the secretion of the seminal glands?

To enhance sperm motility

45

The secretion of which accessory gland contributes to the largest volume of semen?

The secretion of the seminal glands

46

1. Is the prostate gland singular?

2. The prostate gland encircles what part of the urethra inferiorly to what organ?

1. Yes

2. Encircles the prostatic urethra inferiorly to the urinary bladder

47

Describe the pH of the prostate gland's secretion.

Slightly acidic

48

The fluid secretion is what color and texture?

Milky

49

The secretion of the prostate gland contains what 3 substances?

1. Citric acid

2. Several enzymes

3. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

50

What is the function of the prostate gland's secretion?

To activate the sperm

51

1. Are the bulbo-urethral glands paired?

2. What part of the urethra do they drain into?

1. Yes

2. The intermediate part of the urethra

52

Describe the secretion of the bulbo-urethral glands. (Hint: talk about color, texture, and pH)

A clear alkaline mucus

53

What are the 2 functions of the secretion of the bulbo-urethral glands?

1. Lubricates the tip of the penis for copulation

2. Neutralizes acidic urine in the urethra before ejaculation

54

The prostate, seminal glands, and bulbo-urethral glands produce what type of fluid?

Seminal fluid

55

Seminal fluid acts as what type of medium?

A liquid medium in which sperm leaves the body

56

Semen consists of what 2 substances? (Hint: reproductive cells and a type of fluid)

1. Sperm

2. Seminal fluid

57

Overall, describe the pH of of seminal fluid.

Alkaline

58

Why is the pH of seminal fluid alkaline?

To buffer the sperm against the acidity of the female vagina

59

What are 2 external features of the male reproductive system?

1. Scrotal sac

2. Penis

60

What is the copulatory organ of the male reproductive system?

The penis

61

The penis is designed to do what?

Deliver sperm into the female reproductive tract

62

The penis consists of what 2 regions?

1. Body aka shaft

2. Glans penis

63

The loose skin that reflects downward to form a circular fold of skin around the proximal end of the glans penis is called what?

The prepuce or foreskin

64

The prepuce may be removed in what surgical procedure?

Circumcision

65

Internally, the penis consists of what? (Hint: 3 cylinders of a specific tissue)

3 cylinders of erectile tissue

66

The 3 cylinders of erectile tissue in the penis can be engorged with what and during what period?

Can be engorged with blood during sexual excitement

67

When the 3 cylinders of erectile tissue inside the penis are engorged with blood, what happens to the penis? (Hint: 2 things)

1. Becomes rigid

2. Becomes enlarged

68

Why does the penis become rigid and enlarged during sexual excitement?

So that it may more adequately serve as a penetrating device during sexual intercourse

69

When the penis becomes rigid and enlarged due to the 3 internal cylinders of erectile tissue being engorged with blood, what is this event called?

An erection

70

The paired dorsal cylinders of erectile tissue are called what?

Corpora cavernosa

71

The single ventral cylinder of erectile tissue is called what?

Corpus spongiosum

72

The corpus spongiosum surrounds what part of the urethra?

The spongy urethra

73

Describe benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

An increased number of cells which results in an enlarged prostate.

74

As men age, what changes can cause an increased proliferation of cells which can enlarge the prostate?

Hormonal changes

75

An enlarged prostate can lead to what type of dysfunction?

Urinary dysfunction

76

An enlarged prostate can also be a result of what type of cancer?

Prostate cancer

77

Previously, an elevated blood level of what antigen was correlated to prostate cancer?

An elevated blood level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

78

Now, an elevated blood level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) may also be correlated with what condition?

Benign hyperplasia (BPH)

79

What is a more accurate predictor of prostate cancer? (Hint: monitoring a specific antigen)

Monitoring prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level over time to see if it rises

80

Trace a drop of sperm from the seminiferous tubule to the body exterior. (Hint: 15 steps)

1. Seminiferous tubule

2. Straight tubule

3. Rete testis

4. Efferent ductule

5. Head of epididymis

6. Body of epididymis

7. Duct of epididymis

8. Tail of epididymis

9. Ductus deferens

10. Ampulla of ductus deferens

11. Ejaculatory duct

12. Prostatic urethra

13. Intermediate part of the urethra aka membranous urethra

14. Spongy urethra

15. External urethral orifice

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