Activity 2: Studying Nephron Structure

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1

Be able to identify the glomerular capsule, the proximal and distal convoluted tubule regions, and the nephron loop on a 3D model.

Be able to identify the glomerular capsule, the proximal and distal convoluted tubule regions, and the nephron loop on a 3D model.

2

Identify the missing parts.

...

3

The glomerulus is most always found in what region of the kidney?

Renal cortex

4

Which has a denser concentration of microvilli, the proximal convoluted tubule or the distal convoluted tubule?

The proximal convoluted tubule

5

Why is there more microvilli in the proximal convoluted tubule?

The proximal convoluted tubule is where most of tubular resorption (about 75-85%) occurs

6

Although urine is produced by the kidney continuously, it is usually removed from the body only when? (Hint: think convenience)

Urine is only removed when voiding is convenient

7

Which bladder stores urine temporarily?

The urinary bladder

8

The urinary bladder receives urine via what and discharges it via what?

Receives urine via the ureters and discharges it via the urethra.

9

What is voiding also called?

Micturition

10

Describe micturition.

The act of emptying the bladder

11

What 2 valves control the outflow of urine from the urinary bladder? (Hint: 2 sphincters)

1. Internal urethral sphincter

2. External urethral sphincter

12

Ordinarily, the bladder continues to collect urine until about how much as accumulated?

200 ml

13

When about 200 ml of urine has accumulated, what happens? (Hint: stretching of a wall and activation of certain receptors)

The bladder wall is stretched, which activates stretch receptors

14

As the stretch receptors are activated by the stretching of the bladder wall, impulses are transmitted to what system and produce what in the bladder wall?

Impulses are transmitted to the central nervous system and produce reflex contractions in the bladder wall

15

The reflex contractions of the bladder wall then occur through what system pathways and via what group of nerves?

Occur through the parasympathetic nervous system pathways via the pelvic splanchnic nerves.

16

As contractions increase in force and frequency, stored urine is forced past which of the two sphincters into what part of the urethra?

Past the internal urethral sphincter into the superior part of the urethra

17

1. The internal urethral sphincter is composed of what muscle type?

2. Is it under voluntary or involuntary control?

1. Smooth muscle

2. Involuntary control

18

When urine is forced past the internal urethral sphincter into the superior part of the urethra, a person feels the urge to do what?

To void

19

1. The inferior external urethral sphincter consists of what muscle type?

2. Is it voluntarily or involuntarily controlled?

1. Skeletal muscle

2. Voluntarily controlled

20

Describe 2 possible outcomes of the external urethral sphincter when it comes to voiding. (Hint: The 2 outcomes concern voiding)

1. If it's not convenient to void, the opening of the external urethral sphincter can be inhibited.

2. If the time is convenient, the sphincter may be relaxed and the stored urine is released.

21

If voiding is inhibited by the external urethral sphincter, what 2 things happen? (Hint: Think reflex contractions and urine accumulation)

1. Reflex contractions of the bladder cease temporarily

2. Urine continues to accumulate in the bladder

22

If voiding is inhibited, how much urine needs to be collected until the micturition reflex is again activated?

200-300 ml of urine

23

What is lack of voluntary control over the external sphincter referred to as?

Incontinence

24

Why is incontinence normal in children 2 years old or younger?

They have not yet gained control over the external urethral sphincter

25

In adults and older children, incontinence usually results from 4 conditions?

1. Spinal cord injury

2. Emotional problems

3. Bladder irritability

4. Disorder of the urinary tract

26
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