Activity 9: The Liver and Gallbladder and Examining the Histology of the Liver

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1

What is the largest gland in the body?

The liver

2

The liver has how many lobes?

4

3

What are the 4 lobes of the liver (from left to right in the posterior view)?

1. Left lobe

2. Caudate lobe (superior)

3. Quadrate lobe (inferior)

4. Right lobe

4

The liver is suspended from the diaphragm and anterior abdominal wall by what ligament?

Falciform ligament

5

What is the digestive function of the liver?

To produce bile

6

How does bile leave the liver? (Hint: through which duct?)

Leaves the liver through the common hepatic duct

7

How does bile enter the duodenum of the small intestine? (Hint: through which duct?)

Enters the duodenum of the small intestine through the bile duct

8

Does bile have any enzymatic function?

No

9

What is the main function of bile then?

To emulsify fats

10

Describe emulsification.

Breaking of fat globules into small droplets

11

Why does bile emulsify fats?

To create a larger surface area to improve the efficiency of the enzyme lipase

12

What is the consequence if bile is not produced in the body?

Very little fat digestion or absorption occurs

13

When digestion is not occurring in the digestive tract, what happens to bile? (Hint: which duct and organ does it enter?)

Bile backs up into the cystic duct and enters the gallbladder

14

Describe the flow of bile when fat-rich foods are present in the digestive system. (Hint: 4 steps)

1. Gallbladder

2. Cystic duct

3. Meets the common hepatic duct

4. Bile duct

5. Duodenum of the small intestine

15

How long is bile stored in the gallbladder?

Stored until it is needed for the digestion

16

While in the gallbladder, bile is concentrated by the removal of what 2 substances?

1. Water

2. Ions

17

What signals stored bile from the gallbladder to be released to the duodenum?

When fat-rich foods enter the duodenum, a hormonal stimulus causes the gallbladder to contract and release the stored bile

18

Can the common hepatic duct and bile duct be blocked, and if yes, by what?

Yes, and can be blocked by gallstones

19

Where is bile prevented from entering and where does it go when the common hepatic duct (leading to the bile duct which leads to the duodenum) is blocked?

Bile is prevented from entering the small intestine, accumulates, and eventually backs up into the liver

20

Where is bile prevented from entering and where does it go when the bile duct leading to the duodenum of the small intestine is blocked?

Bile is prevented from entering the small intestine, accumulates, and eventually backs up into the liver

21

What 2 events happen when bile backs up into the liver? (Hint: think how the liver cells are affected and where does bile eventually exit from the liver to?)

1. Pressure is exerted on the liver cells

2. Bile begins to enter the bloodstream

22

After bile backs into the liver due to a blocked common hepatic duct or a blocked bile duct, where does it eventually exit to and what is the consequence?

Bile eventually exits into the bloodstream, and the tissues become juandiced or yellow

23

What 3 conditions can cause juandice?

1. Blockage of the common hepatic duct or blockage of the bile duct

2. Hepatitis

3. Cirrhosis

24

What is hepatitis?

Any inflammation of the liver

25

In cirrhosis, what happens to the liver and what 2 structural/texture changes are apparent?

1. The liver becomes damaged

2. The liver becomes hard and fibrous

26

Cirrhosis is prevalent in which group of people?

People who drink excessive alcohol for many years

27

In addition to producing bile which helps the digestive process, the liver is also important in processing what that drains what organs?

Also important in processing nutrient-rich blood draining the digestive organs

28

What is the structural and functional unit of the liver?

A lobule

29

Each lobule is shaped like what polygon and consists of what type of cells?

Shaped like a hexagon and consists of hepatocytes

30

Hepatocytes are also commonly called what?

Liver cells

31

Which structure is located in the center of a liver lobule?

A central vein

32

What radiates from the central vein of a liver lobule?

Hepatocytes

33

At each corner of the lobule is what structure?

Portal triad

34

A portal triad always contains what 3 structures?

1. Bile duct

2. Portal venule

3. Hepatic arteriole

35

What is the function of the bile duct?

To receive bile from the bile canaliculi

36

What is the function of the portal venule?

To carry nutrient-rich blood from the digestive viscera to a lobule

37

What is the function of the hepatic arteriole?

To supply oxgen-rich blood to a lobule or the liver

38

What are located between the hepatocytes?

Sinusoids

39

The sinusoids are spaces filled with what medium?

Blood

40

The blood that percolates or mixes in the sinusoids come from what 2 specific blood vessels?

1. Portal venule

2. Hepatic arteriole

41

What special phagocytic cells line the sinusoids?

Stellate macrophages

42

Stellate macrophages are also called what?

Hepatic macrophages

43

Stellate macrophages serve what purpose? (Hint: remove what 2 substances?)

Remove debris and bacteria as the blood flows through the sinusoids

44

While the stellate macrophages are removing debris and bacteria as the blood flows through the sinusoids, what are the hepatocytes doing? (Hint: picking up 2 things)

1. Picking up oxygen

2. Picking up nutrients

45

What 2 specific nutrients are taken from the blood by the hepatocytes?

1. Glucose

2. Amino acids

46

What happens to most of the glucose that is transported to the liver from the digestive system?

It is stored as glycogen in the liver for later use

47

What happens to amino acids that are transported to the liver from the digestive system?

They are used to make plasma proteins

48

The sinusoids empty into what vein?

The central vein

49

The blood entering a liver lobule ultimately drains from the liver via what veins?

The hepatic veins

50

Describe the flow of blood through a liver lobule starting from the portal triad. (Hint: 6 steps)

1. Oxgen-rich blood from the hepatic arteriole, and nutrient rich blood from the portal venule

2. Sinusoids

3. Central vein

4. Interlobular vein

5. Hepatic vein

6. Inferior vena cava

51

Differentiate the hepatic portal vein and the hepatic veins.

The hepatic portal vein enters the liver and contains nutrient-rich blood. The hepatic veins exit the liver for the inferior vena cava.

52

Bile is made by what cells in the liver?

Hepatocytes

53

Bile flows through which canals?

The bile canaliculi

54

The bile canaliculi run toward which duct in which specific part of a liver lobule?

Toward the bile duct of a portal triad

55

Differentiate the flow of blood and bile in regards to the lobule.

They are completely opposite. Blood flows towards the center of the lobule, and bile flows towards the edge of the lobule.

56
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