Activity 4: The Large Intestine and Examining the Histologic Structure of the Large Intestine

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1

The large intestine extends from what valve to what?

The ileocecal valve to the anus

2

The large intestine circles the small intestine on how many sides?

3

3

The large intestine consists of what 5 subdivisions?

1. Cecum

2. Appendix

3. Colon

4. Rectum

5. Anal canal

4

What organ hangs from the cecum?

The appendix

5

Why is the appendix an ideal location for bacteria to accumulate and multiply?

Because of its twisted structure

6

What is inflammation of the appendix called?

Appendicitis

7

What are the 6 distinct regions of the colon (in order) and describe their location in the abdominal cavity.

1. Ascending colon (traveling up the right side of the abdominal cavity)

2. Right colic flexure (upper right of the abdominal cavity)

3. Transverse colon (traveling across the abdominal cavity horizontally)

4. Left colic flexure (upper left of the abdominal cavity)

5. Descending colon (traveling down the left side of the abdominal cavity)

6. Sigmoid colon

8

What 3 features of the large intestine lie in the pelvis anterior to the sacrum and thus are not considered abdominal cavity structures?

1. Sigmoid colon

2. Rectum

3. Anal canal

9

The anal canal terminates at which structure?

At the anus

10

The anus is the opening to what?

Opening to the exterior of the body

11

The anal canal has how many sphincters?

2

12

What are the 2 sphincters of the anal canal?

1. External anal sphincter

2. Internal anal sphincter

13

The external anal sphincter of the of the anal canal is composed of what type of muscle?

Skeletal muscle

14

The internal anal sphincter of the anal canal is composed of what type of muscle?

Smooth muscle

15

The internal and external anal sphincters are normally closed except during what process?

Defecation

16

Describe defecation.

The elimination of undigested food and bacteria from the body as feces

17

In the large intestine, what happens to the longitudinal layer of the muscularis externa?

Reduced to three longitudinal bands called the teniae coli

18

The teniae coli or three longitudinal bands of the muscularis externa's longitudinal layer cause the large intestinal wall to do what?

Causes the large intestinal wall to pucker into pocketlike sacs called haustra

19

Why are the pocketlike sacs called haustra created?

Because the teniae coli or three longitudinal bands of the muscularis externa's longitudinal layer are shorter than the rest of the wall

20

What hangs from the colon's surface?

Epiploic appendages

21

Epiploic appendages are filled with what?

Fat

22

Epiploic appendages are made out of what type of peritoneum?

Visceral peritoneum

23

What is the 2 main functions of the large intestine?

1. Consolidate unusuable fecal matter

2. Propel the unusuable fecal matter towards the anus and eliminate it from the body

24

When the large intestine is consolidating unusuable fecal matter and propelling it towards the anus for elimination, it also engages in what 2 important activites?

1. Provides a site where intestinal bacteria manufacture vitamins B and K

2. Reclaims most of remaining water from undigested food, thus conserving body water

25

What are watery stools called?

Diarrhea

26

Diarrhea results from what?

Any condition that rushes undigested food residue through the large intestine before the large intestine has absorbed the water

27

What are hard stools called?

Constipation

28

How does constipation come about?

When food residue remains in the large intestine for extended periods and too much water is absorbed

29

Are there goblet cells in the villi epithelium of the large intestine?

Yes

30

Why do you think the large intestine produces so much mucus?

To help propel the undigested food residue along toward the anal canal

31
card image

1. Identify the blanks.

2. Identify the organ depicted in this slide.

card image

1. Look at picture.

2. Large intestine

32
card image

1. Identify the blanks.

2. Identify the organ depicted in this slide.

card image

1. Look at picture.

2. Large intestine