Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base

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The composition and volume of body fluids
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1
  • _______________ is the water and dissolved substances in the body.
  • Water comprises _____ to ____% of the body weight.
  • Body fluid
  • 45 to 75%
2
  • The body conains the required amount of ________ to meet bodily needs.
  • This ________ must move by osmosis.
  • The concentration of _________ in the fluids determines the __________ ____________.
  • water
  • water
  • water
  • fluid balance
3

The amount of water in a person ________ from person to person; the factors that causes changes are:

  • age
  • gender
  • amount of adipose
4

For the body to remain properly hydrated, water intake must _______water output.

Water intake varies from person to person, but must be about ______ ml a day in adults.

  • equal
  • 2500 ml
5

Body water produced by cellular metabolism is called

Metabolic Water or Water of oxidation

6

Water output occurs by several routes:

  1. Lungs, skin
  2. vomiting and diarrhea
  3. fever, severe burns (blisters)
7

The lost of water by lungs (evaporated) or skin is called

Insensible water loss

8

A rise in plasma osmolarity triggers:

  1. Thirst, which prompts us to drink water
  2. Release of antidiuretic hormone ADH
9
  • Water serves as the universal ____________
  • In water a variety of solutes are dissolved, however, solutes are classified broadly as :
  • solvent
  • Electrolytes
  • Non-electrolytes
10

________________ are compounds which share electrons and DO NOT form ions.

For example:

  • Non-electrolytes
  • Glucose
  • Lipids
  • Urea
11
  • _______________ are found in must solutes.
  • These are compounds which dissociate into _______
  • ___________ dissociate in water to form ________ and ____________.
  • Electrolytes
  • Ions
  • Electrolytes
  • anions
  • cations
12

Cations are _____________ charged

Positively

13

Anions are ______________ charged

Negatively

14

Electrolytes main functions and characteristics are:

  1. Many are essential minerals => Na+, Cl-, Ca++, K+, Mg+, HCO3-, HPO4-2, SO4-2
  2. Control osmosis of water between body compartments
  3. Help maintain acid-base balance
15

Water moves to the area with the _________ number of particles in solution:

For example:

  • Glucose -->__________ --> because iti a Non-electrolye
  • greater
  • to glucose
16
  • Na:Cl --> ____________--> ___ ions therefore __ particles in solution.
  • Na+ + Cl-
  • 2
  • 2
17
  • CaCl2 --> ____________--> ___ the effect on solute concentratio
  • Ca++ + Cl- + Cl-
  • 3 times the effect on solute concentration as glucose.
18
  • Ca++ will also attract _____ as many Cl- ions to its area than will Na+
  • Twice
19
  • Electrolytes contribute ________ to a solution
  • Electrolytes attract opposite _______
    • Ca++ attracts ____ ions, _____ charged
    • Na+ attracts ____ ion(s), _____ charged
  • ions
  • ions
  • 2, negatively
  • 1, negatively
20

Body water occupies _____ main fluid compartments within the body:

  1. ___________ fluid (ICF), which occupies ____ by volume which would be about ____ L, ___% Body weight
  2. __________ fluid (ECF), which occupies ____ by volume which would be about ____ l, ____% body weight

2

  1. Intracellular Fluid
    • 2/3s
    • 25 L
    • 40% body weight
  2. Extracellular Fluid
    • 1/3
    • 12 L
    • 20%
21

External Cellular Fluid (ECF) constitutes or is divided in _____ sub-compartments:

  1. _____________, which is the fluid portion of the blood
  2. _____________, which is the fluid in the microscopic aspace between tissue cells.

2

  1. Plasma
  2. Interstitial Fluid
22

___________ contains many proteins (anions), capillaries not permeable to proteins.

Plasma

23

____________ fluid contains very few proteins

Interstitial Fluid

24

______________ fluid, its most abundant cation is K+ , and anion HPO4-2

Interstitial

25

Function and Regulations Na+

Receptors that specifically monitor Na+ concentration or content have to be found.

  • Na+ is linked to _______ volume and pressure.
  • Changes in blood volume or pressure trigger a variety of ________ and __________ controls that regulate total body _____ contet.
  • Blood
  • hormones
  • neural
  • Na+
26
  • Na+ is the most _________ ____-cellular electrolyte
  • Na+ represents ____% of extra-cellular cations
  • abundant
  • extra
  • 90
27

Na+ ROLE

  1. Na+ is necessary for the transmission of ________ in nervous and muscle tissue.
  2. Na+ plays a large role in ______ and _______ balance
  • Impulses
  • Fluid
  • Electrolyte
28

Controlled by

____________ from the adrenal cortex; causes ________ convoluted tubules to _________ Na+

  • Aldosterone
  • Distal
  • reabsorbe
29

Clinical

________________ occurs when excessive loss of Na+ via perspiration, diuretics or burns.

Causes:

  • Hyponatremia
30

Chloride (Cl-) Regulation

_________ is mainly an _____-cellular anion

  • Choride
  • Extra-cellular
31

Role

Cl- Regulates _______ pressure differences between compartments by being able to diffuse between intra-cellular and ________-cellular compartments.

  • Osmotic
  • Extra-cellular
32

Cl- is Controlled by

  • _____________ from the adrenal cortex;
  • Cl- passively follows _____
  • Aldosterone
  • Na+
33

________________ is the abnormal low chloride ion levels in the blood due to vomiting, diarrhea, and diuretics.

Causes mucle _________, _________ (pH) and depressed respirations.

  • Hypochloremia
34

Potassium (K+) Regulation

K+ is primarily and ___________ ion, It is the most abundant intracellular __________

  • intracellular
  • cation
35

Role

K+ plays a role (___________) in the functioning of nerves and muscle

e

Impulse