Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base
- _______________ is the water and dissolved substances in the body.
- Water comprises _____ to ____% of the body weight.
- Body fluid
- 45 to 75%
- The body conains the required amount of ________ to meet bodily needs.
- This ________ must move by osmosis.
- The concentration of _________ in the fluids determines the __________ ____________.
- fluid balance
The amount of water in a person ________ from person to person; the factors that causes changes are:
- amount of adipose
For the body to remain properly hydrated, water intake must _______water output.
Water intake varies from person to person, but must be about ______ ml a day in adults.
- 2500 ml
Body water produced by cellular metabolism is called
Metabolic Water or Water of oxidation
Water output occurs by several routes:
- Lungs, skin
- vomiting and diarrhea
- fever, severe burns (blisters)
The lost of water by lungs (evaporated) or skin is called
Insensible water loss
A rise in plasma osmolarity triggers:
- Thirst, which prompts us to drink water
- Release of antidiuretic hormone ADH
- Water serves as the universal ____________
- In water a variety of solutes are dissolved, however, solutes are classified broadly as :
________________ are compounds which share electrons and DO NOT form ions.
- _______________ are found in must solutes.
- These are compounds which dissociate into _______
- ___________ dissociate in water to form ________ and ____________.
Cations are _____________ charged
Anions are ______________ charged
Electrolytes main functions and characteristics are:
- Many are essential minerals => Na+, Cl-, Ca++, K+, Mg+, HCO3-, HPO4-2, SO4-2
- Control osmosis of water between body compartments
- Help maintain acid-base balance
Water moves to the area with the _________ number of particles in solution:
- Glucose -->__________ --> because iti a Non-electrolye
- to glucose
- Na:Cl --> ____________--> ___ ions therefore __ particles in solution.
- Na+ + Cl-
- CaCl2 --> ____________--> ___ the effect on solute concentratio
- Ca++ + Cl- + Cl-
- 3 times the effect on solute concentration as glucose.
- Ca++ will also attract _____ as many Cl- ions to its area than will Na+
- Electrolytes contribute ________ to a solution
- Electrolytes attract opposite _______
- Ca++ attracts ____ ions, _____ charged
- Na+ attracts ____ ion(s), _____ charged
- 2, negatively
- 1, negatively
Body water occupies _____ main fluid compartments within the body:
- ___________ fluid (ICF), which occupies ____ by volume which would be about ____ L, ___% Body weight
- __________ fluid (ECF), which occupies ____ by volume which would be about ____ l, ____% body weight
- Intracellular Fluid
- 25 L
- 40% body weight
- Extracellular Fluid
- 12 L
External Cellular Fluid (ECF) constitutes or is divided in _____ sub-compartments:
- _____________, which is the fluid portion of the blood
- _____________, which is the fluid in the microscopic aspace between tissue cells.
- Interstitial Fluid
___________ contains many proteins (anions), capillaries not permeable to proteins.
____________ fluid contains very few proteins
______________ fluid, its most abundant cation is K+ , and anion HPO4-2
Function and Regulations Na+
Receptors that specifically monitor Na+ concentration or content have to be found.
- Na+ is linked to _______ volume and pressure.
- Changes in blood volume or pressure trigger a variety of ________ and __________ controls that regulate total body _____ contet.
- Na+ is the most _________ ____-cellular electrolyte
- Na+ represents ____% of extra-cellular cations
- Na+ is necessary for the transmission of ________ in nervous and muscle tissue.
- Na+ plays a large role in ______ and _______ balance
____________ from the adrenal cortex; causes ________ convoluted tubules to _________ Na+
________________ occurs when excessive loss of Na+ via perspiration, diuretics or burns.
Chloride (Cl-) Regulation
_________ is mainly an _____-cellular anion
Cl- Regulates _______ pressure differences between compartments by being able to diffuse between intra-cellular and ________-cellular compartments.
Cl- is Controlled by
- _____________ from the adrenal cortex;
- Cl- passively follows _____
________________ is the abnormal low chloride ion levels in the blood due to vomiting, diarrhea, and diuretics.
Causes mucle _________, _________ (pH) and depressed respirations.
Potassium (K+) Regulation
K+ is primarily and ___________ ion, It is the most abundant intracellular __________
K+ plays a role (___________) in the functioning of nerves and muscle