Biology Final

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1

How many electrons fill carbon's valence shell

4

2

How to determine which solution has the lowest concentration of hydrogen ions (H+)

have the lowest pH level

3

Imagine: atomic properties altered of hydrogen and oxygen atoms, two atoms equal in electronegativity, what changes?

adhesion, cohesion, surface tension

4

Water at its densest

4 C

5

Nitrogen (N) has much more electronegativity than Hydrogen (H), what is true about ammonia NH3?

Each hydrogen bond has a partial positive charge

6

Chemical Equilibrium

state in which the rate of the forward reaction, the state in which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction and products do not change

7

Weak acid, acetic acid (CH3COOH) can form a buffered solution, weak acids buffers bc

acetic acid partially dissociates (ionizes) in water to form protons (H+) and conjugate base (CH3COO-) when this happens, the free protons and conjugate base are available to neutralize incoming OH- and H+

8

ionic bond

sharing single electrons between atoms

9

ionic bond

MgCl2 form crystals when bonded

10

covalent bond

sharing of electrons between atoms

11

hydrogen bond

slight negative charge at one end of one water molecule attracted to slight positive charge another water molecule – H of one water molecule and the O of another water molecule – gives rise to cohesiveness of water molecules

12

Buffer solutions

maintain relatively constant pH when either acids or bases added

13

Calorie

amount of energy required to raise temperature of 1 g of water by 1 C; amount of heat energy that 1 g of water releases when it cools 1 C

14

Structural isomers

differ in covalent arrangements of their atoms

15

Cis-trans isomers

they have variations in arrangement around a double bond

16

Polar covalent bonds

unequal sharing electrons

17

Polar covalent bond

oxygen 3.5 electronegativity, phosphorus electronegativity 2.2

18

hydroxal functional group

(OH-)

Polar

forms hydrogen bonds with oxygen and helps dissolve compounds

19

carbonyl group

card image
20

Carbonyl group

sugars with ketone groups

(-COOH)

21

Amino functional group

card image
22

Amino functional group

(-NH2)
Acts as base

Can donate H+

23

Carboxyl Group

card image
24

Carboxyl group

(-COOH)

25

Sulfhydryl Group

card image
26

Sulfhydryl Group

(-SH)

Stabalize protein structures

27

Phosphate group

card image
28

Phosphate group

(-OPO3 2-)

Confers on a molecule the ability to react with water, release energy

29

Methyl Group

card image
30

Methyl Group

(-CH3)

Affects shape and function male and female sex hormones

Affects expression genes on DNA

31

How would you mimic the function of a molecule in a lab?

Investigate the 3D shape of the naturally occurring molecule to determine what elements of its structure are central and design the molecule similar to the chemical structure

32

Non polar covalent bond

two atoms equally electronegative form

33

Covalent bond

carbon

34

Enantiomers

mirror images of each other

35

4 elements make up most of life's matter

carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen

36

Atomic number

indicates number of protons

37

Mass number

sum of protons and neutrons in atom's nucleus

38

Atomic Mass

number proteins and neutrons in nucleus

39

Water has a high specific heat because

They absorb and release heat when hydrogen bonds break and reform

40

Ice floats in water because

Hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep molecules of ice farther apart than the water molecules of liquid water

41

Hydrophobic

non polar

42

Why are hydrocarbons insoluble?

They exhibit molecular complexity and diversity

43

Compound contains hydroxyl group predominant functional group so

should dissolve in water

44

amino acids

two functional groups always found in carboxyl and amino

45

Testosterome and estradoil have different functional groups attached to same

carbon skeleton

46

Common ancestry of life

ubiquitous use of catalysts by living organisms

47

Each element unique and different from others in chemical properties by

unique number of protons in nucleus

48

The presence or absence of double bonds between carbon atoms and others determine if carbon's covalent bonds are

tetrahedral or planar

49

Colum periodic table

elements have the same number of electrons in shell

50

Isotopes

same number of protons but different number of electrons, differing in atomic mass

51

If a pH solution decreased from 9 to 8

concentration of H+ increased tenfold and concentration of OH- decreased one tenth

52

What is the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?

Dehydration reactions assemble polymers, hydrolysis breaks them apart

53

How might a change of an amino acid at a site, distant from the active site of an enzyme alter an enzyme's substrate activity?

By changing the enzyme's ability

54

Lactose, sugar in milk, composed of one glucose molecule joined by a glycosidic linkage to one galactose molecule. What is it classified as?

Dissacharide

55

What is not embedded in hydrophic portion of the lipid bi layer?

Peripheral proteins

56

Nucleotides

Nitrogenous base and a sugar

57

Molecules that pass through the cell membrane most easily

small and hydrophobic

58

Cell equilibrium with environment, this occurs for substances that can diffuse through the cell

Random movement of substances in and out of the cell

59

Lysosomes

Bacterium engulfed by a white blood cell through the phagocytes digested by enzymes in this

60

Difference between DNA and RNA

DNA nucleotides contain different sugar than the RNA

61

What is the pathway taken by the newly synthesized protein pathway that is secreted by the cell

ER -> Golgi -> vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane

62

Lipids are

insoluble in water

63

Fluid mosaic model proposed

the cell membrane consists of protein molecules embedded in fluid bi-layer of phospholipids

64

NOT component of each monomer to make proteins

Phosphorus atom, P

65

Force driving simple diffusion _ while energy source for active transport is _

concentration gradient; ATP

66

Large numbers of ribosomes present in cells that specialize in producing

proteins

67

Contransport

Phosphate transport

68

Induced fit hypothesis of enzyme catalysis

Binding of the substrate changes shape of the enzyme's active site

69

Hypotonic

There is more solute inside the cell than in the solution surrounding the cell. As a result, there is more water molecules (solvent) surrounding the cell than water molecules inside the cell.

70

Hypertonic

There is more solute in the solution surrounding a cell than inside, resulting in a greater amount of water (solvent) inside the cell. The more solute, the less solvent (i.e. water).

71

Noncompetitive inhibition

molecule binds outside of active site and allosterically decreases enzyme's affinity for substrate

72

Primary role of oxygen in cellular respiration

acts as an acceptor for electrons and hydrogen, forming water

73

Primary function of the Calvin cycle?

synthesize simple sugars from carbon dioxide

74

Catabolism

the cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones

75

Anabolic pathways

They consume energy to build up polymers from monomers.

76

types of reactions would decrease the entropy within a cell

Dehydration reactions

77

The active site of an enzyme is the region that

is involved in the catalytic reaction of the enzyme.

78

According to the induced fit hypothesis of enzyme catalysis, which of the following is correct

The binding of the substrate changes the shape of the enzyme's active site.

79

Competitive inhibitors block the entry of substrate into the active site of an enzyme. On which of the following properties of an active site does this primarily depend?

the ability of an enzyme to form a template for holding and joining molecules

80

catabolic pathways

metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules

81

When electrons move closer to a more electronegative atom, what happens

Energy is released

The more electronegative atom is reduced.

82

The ATP made during glycolysis is generated by

substrate-level phosphorylation.

83

Vacuole

takes up most of the volume of the plant

84

Glysosidic linkage is analogous to

a peptide bond

85

Vinblastine, a drug that inhibits microtubule polymerization, is used to treat some cancer. Cancer cells given this drug are unable to

Seperate chromosomes during division

86

The R-group, or side chain, of amino acid serine -CH2-OH. R group of amino acid leucine is -CH2-CH-(CH3)2. Where would you expect to find these amino acids in a globular protein in aqueous solution?

Leucine would be on the interior, serine would be on the exterior

87

Mechanism in which the end product of metabolic pathway inhibits an earlier step in pathway –

feedback inhibition

88

Cell has enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria, what is it?

Nearly any eukaryotic organism

89

Catabolism is to anabolism as _ is to _

Exergonic; endergonic

90

Diffusion

Passive process in which molecules move from a higher concentration to a region of lower

91

Cell size is limited by

surface to volume ratio

92

The extracellular matrix is thought to participate in regular of animal cell behavior by communicating information from outside to the inside of the cell via

Integrins

93

5’ end of a polynucleotide strand RNA

5’ end has a phosphate group attached to number 5 carbon ribose

94

Sodium potassium pump

Moves three sodium ions out of a cell and two potassium ions into a cell while consuming 1 ATP

95

Allosteric enzyme regulation associated with

An enzyme with more than one subunit

96

When ATP releases some energy, it also releases inorganic phosphate. What happens to inorganic phosphate in cell?

May be used to form a phosphorylated intermediate

97

Ions diffuse across membranes through specific ion channels down

Their electrochemical gradients

98

ATP important molecule in metabolism bc

Provides energy coupling between exergonic and endergonic reactions

99

In receptor mediated endocytosis , receptor molecules initially project outside the cell. Where do they end up?

On the inside surface of vesicle

100

Polysaccharide important component in structure animal and fungi?

Chitin

101

Not part of a prokaryotic cell

Endoplasmic reticulum

102

Involves the decrease in entropy?

Condensation reactions

103

In fractionation of homogenized cells using centrifugation, primary factor determines whether a specific cellular component ends up in supernatant or palette is

Size and weight component

104

This is abundant in liver cells

Smooth ER

105

Nuclear lamina is an array of filaments on inner side of nuclear membrane. If a method were found that could cause the lamina to fall into disarray, what would be the immediate consequence?

Change in the shape of the nucleus

106

Humans cannot digest cellulose because

Humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the glyosidic linkages of starch but not glyosidic linkages of cellulose

107

Osmosis

Water moves across a membrane from areas of lower solute concentration to areas of higher concentration

108

If you disrupt all hydrogen bonds in a protein. What level structure is preserved?

Primary structure

109

Common to plant and animal cells

Mitochondrion

110

Exergonic reactions

net input of energy from its surroundings is required for the reaction

111

Anabolic pathways

consume energy to build up polymers from monomers

112

Phospholipids and triglycerides both

Have a glycerol backbone

113

Bacterium, you find the DNA in

Nucleoid

114

How many molecules of water are used to completely hydrolyze a polymer that is 11 monomers long?

10

115

Occurs regardless if oxygen is present

Glycolysis

116

Process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen is present or absent

Glycolysis

117

Prophase

card image
118

Telophase (mitosis)

card image
119

Cyclin

Consits two sister chromatids joined by a centromere

120

During the duration of meiosis 1, each chromosome

consists of two sister chromatids joined by a centromere

121

Oxidizing agent in:

Pyruvate + NADH + H+ -> lactate + NAD+

122

Glycolysis takes place in

Cytoplasm

123

Alcoholic fermentation

cytosol

124

Lactic ACid Cycle

Cytosol

125

Krebs

Mitochondria Matrix

126

ETC

mitochonria inner membrane

127

Glycolysis net product is

4

128

Kreb net product

1 ATP per 2 pyruvate

129

Synthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation, using the energy released by movement of protons across the membrane down their electrochemical gradient

Active Transport

130

Immediate (most proximal ATP synthesis) energy source that drives ATP synthesis by ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation

H+ concentration across membrane holding atp synthase

131

Inside active Mitochondrion, most electrons follow which pathway

Citric acid cycle – NADH – electron transport chain complexes – oxygen

132

For anaphase to begin, what must occur?

Cohesion must be cleaved enzymatically

133

Cell cycle

G1 S G2 M

134

Sister chromatids separate during

Mitosis and Meiosis II

135

What phase do centrioles begin to move apart in animal cells

prophase

136

Following intermediary metabolites enters citric acid cycle and is formed, in part, by removal of carbon from one molecule pyruvate

Glyceraldehydes 3 phosphate

137

Genome

Complete set of an organisms genes and other DNA sequences

138

In alcohol fermentation NAD+ regenerated from NADH by

Reduction acetaldehyde to ethanol

139

Maintained at constant levels through cell cycle requires cyclin become catalytically active

CDK

140

Metaphase

card image
141

Anaphase

card image
142

Telophase

card image
143

Diploid

complete complete set of chromosomes

( 2 sets )

144

Haploid

half of the chromosomes

( 1 set )

145

Helicase in Replication

unzip helix and forms replication bubble

146

DNA polymerase 1

remove DNA primers and adds new DNA

147

Primase

(produces DNA in opposite orientation of stand)

builds primer complementary DNA template

148

Ligase

seals gaps

149

SSBP (single strand binding protein)

bind 2 unzipped strands and keep them seperate

150

DNA polymerase 3

produces nucleic acid in leading strand

151

okasaki fragments

lagging strand

primer and DNA

152

Monomers for the synthesis of DNA

nucleotides

153

Anti parallel strands of nucleotide that form the DNA double helix are held together by

hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous bases

154

Information in DNA contained in

the sequence of nucleotides along the length of the two strands of the DNA molecule

155

Role DNA polyermerase in DNA replication

attach free nucleotides to new DNA strand

156

DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the __________ of the leading strands, and to the __________ of the lagging strands (Okazaki fragments)

3';3' end

157

Enzyme joins Okasaki fragments

DNA ligase

158

After the formation of a replication bubble, which of the following is the correct sequence of enzymes used for the synthesis of the lagging DNA strand

helicase, primase, DNA polymerase, ligase

159

The removal of the RNA primer and addition of DNA nucleotides to the 3' end of Okazaki fragments in its place is carried out by __________

DNA polymerase I

160

The unwinding of DNA at the replication fork causes twisting and strain in the DNA ahead of the fork, which is relieved by an enzyme called __________

topoisomerase

161

Once the DNA at the replication fork is unwound by helicases, what prevents the two strands from coming back together to re-form a double helix?

Single-strand binding proteins bind the unwound DNA and prevent the double helix from re-forming.

162

Which set of enzymes is involved in nucleotide excision repair?

nuclease, DNA polymerase, and ligase

163

Telomeres

get shorter with each round of DNA replication

164

Telomerase

is an enzyme that lengthens telomeres

165

In the "beads on a string" structure of unfolded chromatin, the "beads" are __________.

nucleosomes