A&P Exam 4

Helpfulness: +2
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1

Embryonic layer that develops the brain

Ectoderm

2

Prosencephalon

Forebrain

  • telencephalon
  • diencephalon
3

Mesencephalon

Midbrain

  • mesencephalon
4

Rhombencephalon

Hindbrain

  • metencephalon
  • myelencephalon
5

telencephalon

Cerebrum:

  • cerebral hemispheres (cortex, white matter, basal nuclei)
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diencephalon

Diencephalon:

  • thalamus
  • hypothalamus
  • epithalamus
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Mesencephalon

  • Brain stem (pons)
  • cerebellum
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myelencephalon

  • Brain stem (medulla oblongata)
  • spinal cord
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ventricular chambers

filled with CSF

lined by ependymal cells

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lateral ventricles

paired, one deep within each cerebral hemisphere, large C-shaped chambers that reflect the pattern of cerebral growth

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septum pellucidum

separate the lateral ventricles

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cerebral hemispheres

83% of total brain mass

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longitudinal fissure

separates the cerebral hemispheres

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transverse fissure

separates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum below

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central sulcus

separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe

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parieto-occipital sulcus

separates the occipital and parietal lobes

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cerebral hemisphere regions

cortex

white matter

basal nuclei

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cerebral cortex

"executive suite"

conscious mind

allows us to be aware of ourselves and our sensations, to communicate, remember and understand, and to initiate voluntary movements.

unmyelinated axons

40% of brain mass

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neurons of cortex

interneurons

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cerebral cortex (2)

contains motor areas, sensory areas, and association areas

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motor areas

posterior part of the frontal lobes: primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, frontal eye field

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primary (somatic) motor cortex

motor area

in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe of each hemisphere

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premotor cortex

motor area

controls learned motor skills of a repetitious or patterned nature like typing

memory bank for skilled motor activities

used in planning movements

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Broca's area

motor area

present in only one hemisphere (usually left)

motor speech area that directs the muscled involved in speech production

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frontal eye field

motor area

controls voluntary movement of the eyes

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somatosensory areas

areas concerned with conscious awareness of sensation, the sensory areas of the cortex, occur in the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes

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primary somatosensory cortex

sensory area

neurons in this gyrus receive info from the general (somatic) sensory receptors in the skin and from proprioceptors in skeletal muscles

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spatial discrimination

ability to identify the body region being stimulated

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somatosensory association cortex

sensory area

integrates sensory inputs relayed to it via the primary somatosensory cortex to produce an understanding of an object being felt: its size, texture, and the relationship of its parts

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rhinencephalon

includes all parts of the cerebrum that receive olfactory signals

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vestibular cortex

responsible for conscious awareness of balance, the position of the head in space

32

prefrontal cortex

involved with intellect, complex learning abilities (cognition), recall and personality

necessary for the production of abstract ideas, judgment, reasoning, persistence, long-term planning, concern for others, and conscience.

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limbic system

emotions

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wernicke's area

language area

understanding written and spoken language

involved in sounding out unfamiliar words

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basal nuclei/ganglia

caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus

36

thalamus

80% of the diencephalon

afferent impulses from all senses and all parts of the body converge on the thalamus and synapse with at least one of its nuclei

impulses include those participating in the regulation of emotion and visceral function from the hypothalamus, and those that help direct the activity of the motor cortices from the cerebellum and basal nuclei

37

hypothalamus

mammilary bodies- relay stations in the olfactory pathways

infundibulum- connects the pituitary gland to the base of the hypothalamus

autonomic control center

center for emotional response

body temperature reglation

regulation of food intake

regulation of water balance and thirst

regulation of sleep-wake cycles

control of endocrine system functioning

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epithalamus

pineal gland attached (secretes melatonin)

choroid plexus

39

brain stem

midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

produce behaviors necessary for survival

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reticular formation

helps control coarse motor limb movement via reticulospinal tracts

vasomotor, cardiac and respiratory centers

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meninges

cover and protect CNS

protect blood vessels and enclose venous sinuses

contain CSF

form partitions in skull

external to internal: dura(periosteal, meningeal), arachnoid, pia

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gray matter

somatic sensory (SS)

visceral sensory (VS)

visceral autonomic motor (VM)

somatic motor (SM)

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mechanoreceptors

respond to touch, pressure, vibration and stretch

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thermoreceptors

sensitive to changes in temperature

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photoreceptors

respond to light energy (retina)

46

chemoreceptors

respond to chemicals (smell, taste, changes in blood chemistry)

47

nociceceptors

sensitive to pain-causing stimuli (extreme heat or cold, excessive pressure, inflammatory chemicals)

48

levels of neural integration in sensory systems

1. receptor level-sensory receptors

2. circuit level- processing in ascending pathways

3. perceptual level- processing in cortical areas

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VII: facial nerves

temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical

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autonomic nervous system motor neurons

innervate smooth, cardiac muscle and glands

make adjustments to ensure optimal support for body activities

operate via subconscious control

"involuntary nervous system" "general visceral motor system"

51

parasympathetic division

keeps body energy use as low as possible

"rest and digest"

52

sympathetic division

mobilizes body during activity

"fight or flight"

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special senses

vision

hearing

taste

smell

equilibrium

54

myopia

(nearsightedness)

Eyeball is too long, so focal point is in front of retina

Corrected with a concave lens

55

hyperopia

(farsightedness)

Eyeball is too short, so focal point is behind retina

Corrected with a convex lens

56

astigmatism

Unequal curvatures in different parts of cornea or lens

Corrected with cylindrically ground lenses or laser procedures