Nutrition Final Exam
1, 25 dihydrocholecalciferol
also called calcitriol, active form of vitamin D
process of moving nutrients from the GI tract to the circulatory system.
the process of absorbing nutrients with the help of a carrier molecule and energy expenditure
- formed when one phosphate molecule is removed from ATP
Al for nutrients
alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)
one of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, found in the stomach and the liver, that converts ethanol to acetaldehyde.
a class of organic compounds that contains one or more hydroxyl groups attached to carbons.
EX) ethanol, glycerol, and methanol.
the building blocks of proteins. there are 20 amino acids composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
a branched chain of polysaccharides found in starches.
a straight chain of polysaccharides found in starch.
- nerve damage
- looks like folate deficiency
Microcytic hypochromic anemia
an eating disorder in which people intentionally starve themselves, causing extreme weight loss.
data the measures body size or body composition
- height, weight, BMI, waist to hip ratio, waist circumference, growth chart, body composition
substances that neutralize harmful oxygen-containing free radicals the can cause cell damage. Vitamin A, C, and E and beta-carotene are antioxidants.
the desire to eat food whether or not there is hunger; a taste for particular foods and cravings in reaction to cues such as the sight, smell, or thought of foods.
android fat distribution; where fat is stored in the upper body, including abdomen, chest, neck and back
the active form of Vitamin C.
- one of the most used sugar substitutes in the world
- composed of two amino acids
- modified aspartic acid and phenylalanine
- provides 4 kilocalories per gram
- 200X sweeter than sucrose
- individuals with PKU are unable to metabolize phenylalanine must avoid aspartame
energy from nutrients in food that store energy in the chemical bonds... released when bonds are broken.
- need for normal folate function
- DNA and red blood cell synthesis
- maintain myelin sheath around nerves
- 2.4 ug/day for adults and elderly
- only animal foods
- pernicious anemia
- coenzyme for more than 100 enzymes; protein and amino acid metabolism
- supports immune system
- homocysteine levels
- 1.3 mg/day for adults
- 1.7 mg/day for men over 50
- 1.5 mg/day for women over 50
- UL: 100 mg/day
- meat, fish, liver, bananas, watermelon, spinach
the thiamin deficiency that results in weakness; the name translates to "I can not".
the degree to which a nutrient is absorbed from food and used in the body.
- amino acid metabolism --> breakdown
- fatty acid synthesis
- DNA synthesis
- absorbed in the liver
- avidin inhibits absorption --> binds to biotin
- 30 ug/day for men and women
- cauliflower, yolk, liver, peanuts, cheese
Body Mass Index
a measurement calculated using the metric formula of weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared; used to determine whether an individual I underweight, at.a healthy weight, or overweight.
Basal metabolic rate
the measure of basal metabolism taken when the body is at rest in a warm, quiet environment, after a 12-hour fast; expressed as kilocalories per kilogram of body weight per hour.
- taken 1 time when you wake up on your own
an eating disorder characterized by consuming large quantities of food and then purging through vomiting, laxative and diuretic use, and/or excessive physical exercise.
a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that lowers blood calcium levels.
one of the most abundant divalent cations found in nature and in the body.
- hard tissue formation
- blood clot formation (works with vitamin K)
- nerve impulse transmission
- muscle contraction
- healthy BP and weight management
- 1000 mg for males and females
- UL: 2.5 g/day
- dairy, mustard, collard greens, canned fish
produced by plants during photosynthesis, the process in which plants use the energy from the sun to create energy.
- after eating plant foods, humans convert the carbohydrates into glucose
cardiovascular disease (CVD)
a general term for diseases of the heart and blood cells.
the most abundant protein in milk; great sources of amino acids, slow digesting protein
a noninflammatory condition of the lips characterized by chapping and fissuring.
the vitamin involved in energy metabolism and the conversion of homocysteine to methane; another name for vitamin B-12.
substances, such as vitamins and minerals, that facilitate the activity of enzymes.
similar to a coenzyme; substance that binds to an enzyme to help catalyze a reaction. refers to a metal ion, while a coenzyme is usually an organic molecule such as a vitamin
performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to pleasure or a reward
symptom of binge eating disorder; eating large amounts of food in a short amount of time and feel guilt and shame afterwards
a hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that stimulates gluconeogenesis and lipolysis.
creatine phosphate (PCr)
a compound that provides reserve of phosphate to regenerate ADP to ATP.
protein complexes that move electrons down the electron transport chain; they contain the minerals iron and copper.
loss of water in the body as a result of inadequate fluid intake or excess fluid loss, such as through sweating, diarrhea, or vomiting.
dual energy xray absorbency - measures bone density
sugar your body produces naturally; the most natural form of glucose
a medical condition whereby an individual either doesn't have enough insulin or is resistant to the insulin available, resulting in a rise in blood glucose levels.
small bulges at weak spots on the colon wall
- helps lower risk of bowel irregularity, constipation and diverticulitis, obesity, heart disease, cancer, and diabetes.
provide dietary and lifestyle advice to healthy individuals age 2 and older to maintain good health and prevent chronic diseases; they are the basis for the federal food and nutrition education programs
a health professional who is a food and nutrition expert; RDNs obtain a college degree on nutrition from an Academy of nutrition and Dietetics - accredited program, and pass a national exam to become a registered dietitian nutritionist.
a process that breaks down food into individual molecules small enough to be absorbed through the intestinal wall.
Salivary amylase: a digestive enzyme that begins breaking down carbs (starch) in the mouth; other important enzyme during carb digestion include pancreatic amylase, maltase, sucrase, and lactase.
secretin: secreted by the duodenum and regulates acidity
gastrin: stimulates the production of gastric acid in the stomach
motilin: fat breakdown
cholecytoskinin: stimulates the release of digestive enzymes; stimulates emptying of bile in the gallbladder
direct measurement of the energy expended by the body obtained by assessing heat loss
abnormal and potential harmful eating patterns that do not meet specific criteria for anorexia or bulimia or binge eating disorder.
deoxyribonucleic acid - carries the genetic information in growth
Dietary reference intake
- provide recommendations on nutrient needs for individuals
- different nutrient requirements for different
life stages or conditions
- pregnant vs. non pregnant
describe the amount of a nutrient provided in one serving of food.
Based on a 2,000 calorie diet:
- high in nutrient if above 20%
- good source of between 10-20%
- low in nutrient if less than 5%
there is NO DV for trans fat, sugar and protein
psychological illnesses that involve specific abnormal eating behaviors: anorexia nervosa (self-starvation) and bulimia nervosa (binge and purge)
refined grain foods that have folic acid, thiamin, niacin, riboflavin and iron added (similar to fortification?)
enzymes - specific
substances, mostly proteins, that increase the rate of chemical changes or catalyze chemical reactions; also called biological catalysts
a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that signals the liver cells to release glucose; also referred to as the "fight or flight" hormone.
substance such as a dietary supplement, used to enhance athletic performance
the hormone responsible for female sex characteristics; secreted from the ovaries
any type of structured or planned physical activity
Flavin adenine dinucleotide
a coenzyme form of riboflavin, which functions in the electron carrier in energy metabolism.
two fatty acids + phosphate backbone (lipid)
three fatty acids + glycerol backbone (form of a lipid aka a fat)
most basic unit of triglycerides and phospholipids; consist of carbon chains ranging from two to 80 carbons in length
the most basic unit of triglycerides and phospholipids; fatty acids consist of carbon chains ranging from 2 - 80 carbons in length.
- short-chain: 2-4 carbons
- medium chan: 6-10 carbons
- long-chain: 12 or more carbons
female athlete triad
syndrome of three interrelated conditions occurirng in some physically active females:
- low energy availability (from disordered eating)
- decreased bone density // osteoporosis
difference between the amount of water taken into the body and the amount of water excreted
FMN (flavin mononucleotide)
coenzyme form of riboflavin, which functions in the electron transport chain
essential for a healthy pregnancy; form of folate used in vitamin supplements and fortification of foods
- reduces the risk of neural tube defects
- new cell synthesis
- recommendation: 400 micrograms daily
foods with added vitamins and minerals; fortified foods often contain nutrients that are not naturally present in the food or that are in higher amounts than the food contains naturally.
sweetest of all the monosaccharides; known a fruit sugar or levulose
monosaccharide that links with glucose to create the disaccharide found in food
the formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources such as glucogenic amino acids, pyruvate, lactate and glycerol
hydrolysis of glycogen to release glucose
hormone secreted from the alpha cells of the pancreas that stimulates glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to increase blood levels of glucose
primary monosaccharide (sugar) and primary energy source for the body
three-carbon backbone of a triglyceride (fat molecule)
rapid increase in height and weight
excessive storage of body fat in the thighs and hips of the lower body; called pear shape fat distribution
body weight in relationship to height that doesn't increase the risk of developing any weight-related health problems or diseases; BMI between 18.5 and 24.9
oxygen-carrying ,heme-containing protein found in red blood cells
the physical sensation associated with the need or intense desire for food.
method used to assess body volume by underwater weighing
high blood pressure; defined as systolic blood pressure higher than 140 mm Hg and/or a diastolic blood pressure greater than 90 mm Hg
antibody, large Y-shaped protein produced by plasma; used in the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses
an indirect measurement of energy expenditure obtained by measuring the amount of oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide produced
the hormone secreted from the beta cells of the pancreas that stimulates the uptake of glucose from the blood into the cells.
- lowers blood glucose levels
iron deficiency anemia
lack of dietary iron or excessive loss of blood
iron as a nutrient
the condition of increased ketone bodies in the blood.
- not a desirable state to be in because its hard on your kidneys, a symptom of diabetes
the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree; used to express the measurement of energy in foods; 1 kcal = 1000 cals
kilogram (pounds to kg)
1 kg = 2.2 pounds
a dissarcharide composed of glucose + galactose; known as milk sugar
also known as fructose; the sweetest of all the monosaccharides and also found in fruit sugar
minerals needed in amounts greater than 100 mg per day; these include: sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sulfur
form of anemia characterized by large, immature red blood cells
major cation in the body;
long-term outcome of consuming a diet that is either lacking in the essential nutrients or contains excess energy; an imbalance of nutrients in the diet
disaccharide composed of two glucose units joined together
essential minerals that the body needs in smaller amounts: (name of microminerals)
form of anemia in in which red blood cells are small and pale in color due to lack of hemoglobin synthesis due to vitamin B6 deficiency
inorganic elements essential to the nutrition of humans
monounsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid that has one double bond
the oxygen-carrying, heme-containing protein found in muscle cell
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
coenzyme form of niacin that functions as an electron carrier and can be reduced to NADH during metabolism
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
coenzyme form of niacin that functions as an electron carrier and can be reduced to NADPH during metabolism
science that studies how nutrients and compounds in foods nourish the body and affect body functions and overall health
generic term; no recognized legal or professional meaning. a nutritionist without having any credible training in nutrition
having a BMI greater than 29.9; excess body weight due to abnormal accumulation of stored body fat
adult equivalent of rickets, causing muscle and bone weakness and pain
condition where bones become brittle and porous, making them fragile due to depletion of calcium and bone proteins - has something to do with calcium and vitamin D deficiency
body weight that increases risk of developing weight-related health problems; defined as having a BMI between 25 and 29.9
process of absorbing nutrients freely across the cell membrane
- protein is used for energy rather than fat; its other functions in the body
- other important nutrients are in short supply
- more prevalent in infants and children
- 1 in 8 people in the world do not have adequate protein intake, kcal intake, or both
deficiency of niacin or tryptophan
forward motion that moves food through the digestive system; form of mechanical digestion because it influences motion, but it does not add chemical secretions
the second most abundant mineral in the body
vitamin K1; form of vitamin K found in plants
naturally occuring sterols found in plants
eating nonfood such as dirt and clay.
polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)
a fatty acid with two or more double bonds
main cationic the intercellular fluid.
lacking the means to provide for material or comfort needs
large molecules made up from a chain of amino acids - sequence of amino acids is determined by DNA
Recommended dietary allowance
the recommended daily amount of a nutrient that meets the needs of nearly all individuals (97 to 98%) in a similar age and gender group.
- the RDA is set higher than the EAR (estimated average requirement)
the aldehyde form of preformed vitamin A.
the acid form of preformed vitamin A.
the alcohol form of preformed vitamin A.
the measure of the amount of energy expended by the body at rest and after approximately a 3 to 4 hour fasting period. This rate is about 6% higher than BMR.
the feeling of "fullness" produced y the consumption of food.
the state of feeling full.
saturated fatty acid
a fatty acid where all the carbons are bound with hydrogen
DEFICIENCY OF VITAMIN C
- deficient for 20-40 days (less than 10 mg a day)
- fatigue, pinpoint hemorrhage
- bleeding gums and joint hemorrhage
- associated with poverty
a weight-control theory that states each individual has a genetically established body weight. Any deviation from this point stimulates changes in body metabolism to reestablish the normal weight.
circular ring of muscle that opens and closes in response to nerve input
a symptom of anorexia nervosa
Thermic effect of exercise
this refers to the increase in muscle contraction that occurs during physical activity, which produces heat and contributes to the total daily energy expenditure.
Thermic effect of food
the amount of energy expended by the body to digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, and store energy-yielding nutrients from foods.
male hormone responsible for development of secondary sex characteristics in men (i.e. facial hair, lower voice, development of pubic hair, etc)
a less active form of the thyroid hormone
the coenzyme form of thiamin with two phosphate groups as part of the molecule.
trans fatty acids
a result of hydrogenating an unsaturated fatty acid, causing a reconfiguration of double bonds
upper limit in consumption
state of inadequate nutrition where a person's nutrient and/or energy needs aren't met through the diet
unsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid in which there are one or more double bonds between carbons
maintaining a health body weight; BMI of 18.5 to 24.9