Nutrition Final Exam

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1

1, 25 dihydrocholecalciferol

also called calcitriol, active form of vitamin D

2

absorption pathways

process of moving nutrients from the GI tract to the circulatory system.

3

active absorption

the process of absorbing nutrients with the help of a carrier molecule and energy expenditure

4

ADP

Adenosine triphosphate

  • formed when one phosphate molecule is removed from ATP
5

adults

...

6

Al for nutrients

Adequate Intake

7

alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)

one of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, found in the stomach and the liver, that converts ethanol to acetaldehyde.

8

alcohol

a class of organic compounds that contains one or more hydroxyl groups attached to carbons.

EX) ethanol, glycerol, and methanol.

9

amino acids

the building blocks of proteins. there are 20 amino acids composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.

10

AMP

...

11

amylopectin

a branched chain of polysaccharides found in starches.

12

amylose

a straight chain of polysaccharides found in starch.

13

android obesity

...

14

anemias

Pernicious Anemia:

  • nerve damage
  • looks like folate deficiency

Microcytic hypochromic anemia

15

anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder in which people intentionally starve themselves, causing extreme weight loss.

16

anthropometric

data the measures body size or body composition

  • height, weight, BMI, waist to hip ratio, waist circumference, growth chart, body composition
17

antioxidant

substances that neutralize harmful oxygen-containing free radicals the can cause cell damage. Vitamin A, C, and E and beta-carotene are antioxidants.

18

appetite

the desire to eat food whether or not there is hunger; a taste for particular foods and cravings in reaction to cues such as the sight, smell, or thought of foods.

19

apple shape

android fat distribution; where fat is stored in the upper body, including abdomen, chest, neck and back

20

ascorbic acid

the active form of Vitamin C.

21

aspartame

  • one of the most used sugar substitutes in the world
  • composed of two amino acids
    • modified aspartic acid and phenylalanine
  • provides 4 kilocalories per gram
  • 200X sweeter than sucrose
  • individuals with PKU are unable to metabolize phenylalanine must avoid aspartame
22

ATP

energy from nutrients in food that store energy in the chemical bonds... released when bonds are broken.

23

B12

Functions:

  • need for normal folate function
    • DNA and red blood cell synthesis
  • maintain myelin sheath around nerves

DRI:

  • 2.4 ug/day for adults and elderly

Food sources:

  • only animal foods

deficiencies:

  • pernicious anemia
24

B6

Functions:

  • coenzyme for more than 100 enzymes; protein and amino acid metabolism
  • supports immune system
  • homocysteine levels

DRI:

  • 1.3 mg/day for adults
  • 1.7 mg/day for men over 50
  • 1.5 mg/day for women over 50
  • UL: 100 mg/day

food sources:

  • meat, fish, liver, bananas, watermelon, spinach
25

beri beri

the thiamin deficiency that results in weakness; the name translates to "I can not".

26

bioavailability

the degree to which a nutrient is absorbed from food and used in the body.

27

biotin

function:

  • amino acid metabolism --> breakdown
  • fatty acid synthesis
  • DNA synthesis
  • absorbed in the liver
  • avidin inhibits absorption --> binds to biotin

DRI:

  • 30 ug/day for men and women

food sources:

  • cauliflower, yolk, liver, peanuts, cheese
28

BMI

Body Mass Index

a measurement calculated using the metric formula of weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared; used to determine whether an individual I underweight, at.a healthy weight, or overweight.

29

BMR

Basal metabolic rate

the measure of basal metabolism taken when the body is at rest in a warm, quiet environment, after a 12-hour fast; expressed as kilocalories per kilogram of body weight per hour.

  • taken 1 time when you wake up on your own
30

BodPod

...

31

boron

...

32

bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by consuming large quantities of food and then purging through vomiting, laxative and diuretic use, and/or excessive physical exercise.

33

calcitonin

a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that lowers blood calcium levels.

34

calcium

one of the most abundant divalent cations found in nature and in the body.

function:

  • hard tissue formation
  • blood clot formation (works with vitamin K)
  • nerve impulse transmission
  • muscle contraction
  • healthy BP and weight management

DRI:

  • 1000 mg for males and females
  • UL: 2.5 g/day

food sources:

  • dairy, mustard, collard greens, canned fish
35

calorie

...

36

carbohydrates

produced by plants during photosynthesis, the process in which plants use the energy from the sun to create energy.

  • after eating plant foods, humans convert the carbohydrates into glucose
37

carbon

...

38

carbon dioxide

...

39

cardiovascular disease (CVD)

a general term for diseases of the heart and blood cells.

40

casein

the most abundant protein in milk; great sources of amino acids, slow digesting protein

41

cell structure/function

...

42

cheilosis

a noninflammatory condition of the lips characterized by chapping and fissuring.

43

chromium

...

44

cobalamin

the vitamin involved in energy metabolism and the conversion of homocysteine to methane; another name for vitamin B-12.

45

cobalt

...

46

coenzyme function

substances, such as vitamins and minerals, that facilitate the activity of enzymes.

47

coenzyme A

...

48

cofactor minerals

similar to a coenzyme; substance that binds to an enzyme to help catalyze a reaction. refers to a metal ion, while a coenzyme is usually an organic molecule such as a vitamin

49

compulsive behavior

performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to pleasure or a reward

50

compulsive eating

symptom of binge eating disorder; eating large amounts of food in a short amount of time and feel guilt and shame afterwards

51

copper

...

52

cortisol

a hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that stimulates gluconeogenesis and lipolysis.

53

creatine phosphate (PCr)

a compound that provides reserve of phosphate to regenerate ADP to ATP.

54

cytochrome

protein complexes that move electrons down the electron transport chain; they contain the minerals iron and copper.

55

nutrient deficiencies

...

56

deficiency symptoms

...

57

dehydration

loss of water in the body as a result of inadequate fluid intake or excess fluid loss, such as through sweating, diarrhea, or vomiting.

58

depression

...

59

DEXA

dual energy xray absorbency - measures bone density

60

dextrose

sugar your body produces naturally; the most natural form of glucose

61

diabetes

a medical condition whereby an individual either doesn't have enough insulin or is resistant to the insulin available, resulting in a rise in blood glucose levels.

62

diverculitis

small bulges at weak spots on the colon wall

63

dietary fiber

benefits:

  • helps lower risk of bowel irregularity, constipation and diverticulitis, obesity, heart disease, cancer, and diabetes.
64

dietary guidelines

provide dietary and lifestyle advice to healthy individuals age 2 and older to maintain good health and prevent chronic diseases; they are the basis for the federal food and nutrition education programs

65

dietitian

a health professional who is a food and nutrition expert; RDNs obtain a college degree on nutrition from an Academy of nutrition and Dietetics - accredited program, and pass a national exam to become a registered dietitian nutritionist.

66

digestion

a process that breaks down food into individual molecules small enough to be absorbed through the intestinal wall.

67

digestive enzymes

Salivary amylase: a digestive enzyme that begins breaking down carbs (starch) in the mouth; other important enzyme during carb digestion include pancreatic amylase, maltase, sucrase, and lactase.

68

digestive hromones

secretin: secreted by the duodenum and regulates acidity

gastrin: stimulates the production of gastric acid in the stomach

motilin: fat breakdown

cholecytoskinin: stimulates the release of digestive enzymes; stimulates emptying of bile in the gallbladder

69

direct calorimetry

direct measurement of the energy expended by the body obtained by assessing heat loss

70

disordered eating

abnormal and potential harmful eating patterns that do not meet specific criteria for anorexia or bulimia or binge eating disorder.

71

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid - carries the genetic information in growth

72

DRI

Dietary reference intake

  • provide recommendations on nutrient needs for individuals
  • different nutrient requirements for different life stages or conditions
    • pregnant vs. non pregnant
    • age
    • gender
73

DV

Daily Value

describe the amount of a nutrient provided in one serving of food.

Based on a 2,000 calorie diet:

  • high in nutrient if above 20%
  • good source of between 10-20%
  • low in nutrient if less than 5%

there is NO DV for trans fat, sugar and protein

74

eating patterns

...

75

eating disorders

psychological illnesses that involve specific abnormal eating behaviors: anorexia nervosa (self-starvation) and bulimia nervosa (binge and purge)

76

energy sources

...

77

enriched grains

refined grain foods that have folic acid, thiamin, niacin, riboflavin and iron added (similar to fortification?)

78

enrichment nutrients

...

79

enzymes - specific

substances, mostly proteins, that increase the rate of chemical changes or catalyze chemical reactions; also called biological catalysts

80

epinepherine

a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that signals the liver cells to release glucose; also referred to as the "fight or flight" hormone.

81

ergogenic aids

substance such as a dietary supplement, used to enhance athletic performance

82

estrogen

the hormone responsible for female sex characteristics; secreted from the ovaries

83

exercise

any type of structured or planned physical activity

84

FAD

Flavin adenine dinucleotide

a coenzyme form of riboflavin, which functions in the electron carrier in energy metabolism.

85

phospholipid

two fatty acids + phosphate backbone (lipid)

86

triglyceride

three fatty acids + glycerol backbone (form of a lipid aka a fat)

87

fatty acid

most basic unit of triglycerides and phospholipids; consist of carbon chains ranging from two to 80 carbons in length

88

fats

...

89

fatty acids

the most basic unit of triglycerides and phospholipids; fatty acids consist of carbon chains ranging from 2 - 80 carbons in length.

  • short-chain: 2-4 carbons
  • medium chan: 6-10 carbons
  • long-chain: 12 or more carbons
90

FDA

...

91

female athlete triad

syndrome of three interrelated conditions occurirng in some physically active females:

  • low energy availability (from disordered eating)
  • amenorrhea
  • decreased bone density // osteoporosis
92

fluid imbalance

difference between the amount of water taken into the body and the amount of water excreted

93

FMN (flavin mononucleotide)

coenzyme form of riboflavin, which functions in the electron transport chain

94

folate

...

95

folic acid

essential for a healthy pregnancy; form of folate used in vitamin supplements and fortification of foods

  • reduces the risk of neural tube defects
  • new cell synthesis
  • recommendation: 400 micrograms daily
96

fortified definition

foods with added vitamins and minerals; fortified foods often contain nutrients that are not naturally present in the food or that are in higher amounts than the food contains naturally.

97

fructose

sweetest of all the monosaccharides; known a fruit sugar or levulose

98

galactose

monosaccharide that links with glucose to create the disaccharide found in food

99

gluconeogenesis

the formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources such as glucogenic amino acids, pyruvate, lactate and glycerol

100

glycogenolysis

hydrolysis of glycogen to release glucose

101

glucagon

hormone secreted from the alpha cells of the pancreas that stimulates glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to increase blood levels of glucose

102

glucose

primary monosaccharide (sugar) and primary energy source for the body

103

glycerol

three-carbon backbone of a triglyceride (fat molecule)

104

growth spurt

rapid increase in height and weight

105

gynoid obesity

excessive storage of body fat in the thighs and hips of the lower body; called pear shape fat distribution

106

healthy weight

body weight in relationship to height that doesn't increase the risk of developing any weight-related health problems or diseases; BMI between 18.5 and 24.9

107

height (inches/cm/m)

...

108

hemoglobin

oxygen-carrying ,heme-containing protein found in red blood cells

109

HFCS

...

110

honey

...

111

hunger

the physical sensation associated with the need or intense desire for food.

112

hydrostatic weighting

method used to assess body volume by underwater weighing

113

hypertension

high blood pressure; defined as systolic blood pressure higher than 140 mm Hg and/or a diastolic blood pressure greater than 90 mm Hg

114

immunoglobulin

antibody, large Y-shaped protein produced by plasma; used in the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses

115

inactivity

...

116

indirect calorimetry

an indirect measurement of energy expenditure obtained by measuring the amount of oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide produced

117

insulin

the hormone secreted from the beta cells of the pancreas that stimulates the uptake of glucose from the blood into the cells.

  • lowers blood glucose levels
118

intolerances

...

119

iodine

...

120

iron deficiency anemia

lack of dietary iron or excessive loss of blood

121

iron as a nutrient

...

122

ketosis

the condition of increased ketone bodies in the blood.

  • not a desirable state to be in because its hard on your kidneys, a symptom of diabetes
123

kilocalorie

the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree; used to express the measurement of energy in foods; 1 kcal = 1000 cals

124

kilogram (pounds to kg)

1 kg = 2.2 pounds

125

lactose

a dissarcharide composed of glucose + galactose; known as milk sugar

126

laxatives

...

127

legumes

...

128

levulose

also known as fructose; the sweetest of all the monosaccharides and also found in fruit sugar

129

macro minerals

minerals needed in amounts greater than 100 mg per day; these include: sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sulfur

130

macrocytic anemia

form of anemia characterized by large, immature red blood cells

131

magnesium

major cation in the body;

132

malnutrition

long-term outcome of consuming a diet that is either lacking in the essential nutrients or contains excess energy; an imbalance of nutrients in the diet

133

maltose

disaccharide composed of two glucose units joined together

134

manganese

...

135

menaquinone

...

136

micro minerals

essential minerals that the body needs in smaller amounts: (name of microminerals)

137

microcytic anemia

form of anemia in in which red blood cells are small and pale in color due to lack of hemoglobin synthesis due to vitamin B6 deficiency

138

minerals

inorganic elements essential to the nutrition of humans

139

monounsaturated fatty acid

a fatty acid that has one double bond

140

myoglobin

the oxygen-carrying, heme-containing protein found in muscle cell

141

NAD

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

coenzyme form of niacin that functions as an electron carrier and can be reduced to NADH during metabolism

142

NADP

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

coenzyme form of niacin that functions as an electron carrier and can be reduced to NADPH during metabolism

143

nerve impluse

...

144

niacin

...

145

nitrogen

...

146

nurture

...

147

nutrition

science that studies how nutrients and compounds in foods nourish the body and affect body functions and overall health

148

nutritionist

generic term; no recognized legal or professional meaning. a nutritionist without having any credible training in nutrition

149

obesity

having a BMI greater than 29.9; excess body weight due to abnormal accumulation of stored body fat

150

osteomalacia

adult equivalent of rickets, causing muscle and bone weakness and pain

151

osteoporosis

condition where bones become brittle and porous, making them fragile due to depletion of calcium and bone proteins - has something to do with calcium and vitamin D deficiency

152

overweight

body weight that increases risk of developing weight-related health problems; defined as having a BMI between 25 and 29.9

153

oxygen

...

154

pantothenic acid

...

155

passive absorption

process of absorbing nutrients freely across the cell membrane

156

PCM/PEM

Protein-energy malnutrition

  • protein is used for energy rather than fat; its other functions in the body
  • other important nutrients are in short supply
  • more prevalent in infants and children
  • 1 in 8 people in the world do not have adequate protein intake, kcal intake, or both
157

pellegra

deficiency of niacin or tryptophan

158

peristalsis

forward motion that moves food through the digestive system; form of mechanical digestion because it influences motion, but it does not add chemical secretions

159

phosphorus

the second most abundant mineral in the body

160

phylloquinone

vitamin K1; form of vitamin K found in plants

161

phytochemicals

naturally occuring sterols found in plants

162

pica

eating nonfood such as dirt and clay.

163

polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)

a fatty acid with two or more double bonds

164

potassium

(K+)

main cationic the intercellular fluid.

165

poverty

lacking the means to provide for material or comfort needs

166

progesterone

...

167

protein

large molecules made up from a chain of amino acids - sequence of amino acids is determined by DNA

168

purging

...

169

quinones

...

170

RDA

Recommended dietary allowance

the recommended daily amount of a nutrient that meets the needs of nearly all individuals (97 to 98%) in a similar age and gender group.

  • the RDA is set higher than the EAR (estimated average requirement)
171

retinals

the aldehyde form of preformed vitamin A.

172

retinoic acid

the acid form of preformed vitamin A.

173

retinol

the alcohol form of preformed vitamin A.

174

riboflavin

...

175

RMR

the measure of the amount of energy expended by the body at rest and after approximately a 3 to 4 hour fasting period. This rate is about 6% higher than BMR.

176

RNA

...

177

salt

...

178

satiety

the feeling of "fullness" produced y the consumption of food.

179

satiation

the state of feeling full.

180

saturated fatty acid

a fatty acid where all the carbons are bound with hydrogen

181

scurvy

DEFICIENCY OF VITAMIN C

  • deficient for 20-40 days (less than 10 mg a day)
  • fatigue, pinpoint hemorrhage
  • bleeding gums and joint hemorrhage
  • associated with poverty
182

selenium

...

183

set point

a weight-control theory that states each individual has a genetically established body weight. Any deviation from this point stimulates changes in body metabolism to reestablish the normal weight.

184

settling point

...

185

sphincter

circular ring of muscle that opens and closes in response to nerve input

186

starvation

a symptom of anorexia nervosa

187

sub-optimal

...

188

sugar

...

189

sulfur

...

190

tastes

...

191

TEE

Thermic effect of exercise

this refers to the increase in muscle contraction that occurs during physical activity, which produces heat and contributes to the total daily energy expenditure.

192

TEF

Thermic effect of food

the amount of energy expended by the body to digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, and store energy-yielding nutrients from foods.

193

testosterone

male hormone responsible for development of secondary sex characteristics in men (i.e. facial hair, lower voice, development of pubic hair, etc)

194

thiamin

...

195

thyroxin

a less active form of the thyroid hormone

196

tocopherols

...

197

tocotrienols

...

198

TPP

Thiamin pyrophosphate

the coenzyme form of thiamin with two phosphate groups as part of the molecule.

199

trans fatty acids

a result of hydrogenating an unsaturated fatty acid, causing a reconfiguration of double bonds

200

UL

upper limit in consumption

201

undernutrition

state of inadequate nutrition where a person's nutrient and/or energy needs aren't met through the diet

202

unsaturated fatty acid

a fatty acid in which there are one or more double bonds between carbons

203

USDA

...

204

vitamin E

...

205

vitamin B

...

206

vitamin A

...

207

vitamin C

...

208

vitamin K

...

209

vitamin D

...

210

vitamins

...

211

weight

...

212

weight change

...

213

weight management

maintaining a health body weight; BMI of 18.5 to 24.9