Activity 1: Identifying Respiratory System Organs-Upper and Lower Respiratory System Structures

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1

Body cells require an abundant and continuous supply of what gas?

oxygen

2

As cells use oxygen, what gas do they release as a waste-product?

carbon dioxide

3

What is the major role of the respiratory system?

Supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide

4

How many processes are required for the respiratory system to supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide?

4

5

The 4 processes required for the respiratory system to supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide are collectively referred to as what?

Respiration

6

What are the 4 processes that must occur in order for the respiratory system to supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide?

1. Pulmonary ventilation

2. External respiration

3. Transport of respiratory gases

4. Internal respiration

7

What is pulmonary ventilation?

Movement of air in and out of the lungs so that the gases are changed and refreshed

8

Pulmonary ventilation is also called?

Breathing

9

What is external respiration?

Gas exchange between the blood and air-filled chambers of the lungs

10

What is transport of respiratory gases?

Transport of respiration gases between lungs and tissue cells of the body using blood

11

What is internal respiration?

Exchange of gases between systemic blood and tissue cells

12

What 2 processes are exclusive to the respiratory system?

1. Pulmonary ventilation

2. External respiration

13

Why are the respiratory and circulatory systems irreversibly linked?

The transport of gases, which enter the body through the respiratory system, occurs through blood, the primary agent of the circulatory system.

14

What are the 5 upper respiratory system structures?

1. External nose

2. Nasal cavity

3. Pharynx

4. Paranasal sinuses

5. Larynx

15

The external nose is supported by what 2 materials?

1. bone

2. cartilage

16

What is the function of the external nose?

Provide entrance for air into the respiratory system.

17

The nasal cavity is lined with what type of mucosa of what cell type?

Pseudostratified ciliated clumnar epithelium

18

What are 4 functions of the nasal cavity? (Hint: 3 deal with air, and 1 deals with sound)

1. Filter air

2. Warm air

3. Moisten air

4. Act as resonance chambers for voice production

19

The nasal cavity contains what 4 sub structures?

1. Nasal vestibule

2. Nasal septum

3. Superior, middle, and inferior nasal conchae

4. Posterior nasal apertures

20

The nasal vestibule contain what glands and follicles? (Hint: 2 gland types and 1 follicle type)

1. Sweat glands

2. Sebaceous glands

3. Hair follicles

21

What is the function of the nasal vestibule?

Filter coarse particles from air

22

The nasal septum is formed by what bone and what type of cartilage?

Formed by the vomer and septal cartilage

23

What is the function of the nasal septum?

Divides the nasal cavity into left and right sides

24

The three conchae are lined with mucosa comprised of what cell type?

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.

25

What are the 3 conchae?

1. Superior nasal conchae

2. Middle nasal conchae

3. Inferior nasal conchae

26

What is the function of the three conchae?

Increase surface area of mucosa to enhance air turbulence and trapping of large particles in the mucus.

27

What is the function of posterior nasal apertures?

Provide an exit for the air into the nasopharynx.

28

The pharynx is composed of what 3 parts?

1. Nasopharynx

2. Oropharynx

3. Laryngopharynx

29

The nasopharynx is lined with what cell type?

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

30

What are the 2 functions of the nasopharynx?

1. Provides for passage of air from nasal cavity

2. Tonsils in the region provide protection against pathogens

31

The oropharynx is lined with what cell type?

Stratified squamous epithelium

32

What are the 2 functions of the oropharynx?

1. Provides for passage of air and swallowed food.

2. Tonsils provide protection against pathogens.

33

The laryngopharynx is line by what cell type?

Stratified squamous epithelium

34

What is the function of the laryngopharynx?

Provides for the passage of air and swallowed foods

35

The paranasal sinuses are lined with what cell type?

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

36

What are the 3 functions of the paranasal sinuses?

1. Act as resonance chambers for speech

2. Warm incoming air

3. Moisten incoming air

37

What is the inferior border of the upper respiratory tract? (Hint: border organ)

Larynx

38

The larynx connects what part of the pharynx to what other structure?

Connects the laryngopharynx to the trachea

39

How many total cartilages are present in the larynx?

9

40

What are the 9 cartilages in the larynx?

Thyroid cartilage (1), cricoid cartilage (1), epiglottis (1), arytenoid cartilage (2), corniculate cartilage (2), cuneiform cartilage (2)

41

What cells lines the larynx superior to the vocal folds?

Stratified squamous epithelium

42

What cells line the larynx inferior to the vocal folds?

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelieum

43

What are the 3 functions of the larynx?

1. Air passageway

2. Prevent food from entering lower respiratory tract

3. Responsible for voice production

44

Thyroid cartilage is made up of what type of cartilage?

Hyaline cartilage

45

What is the laryngeal prominence of the thyroid cartilage often called?

Adam's apple

46

Which cartilage forms the framework of the larynx?

Thyroid cartilage

47

What cartilage makes up cricoid cartilage?

Hyaline cartilage

48

What attaches the larynx to the trachea?

Cricotracheal ligament

49

Arytenoid cartilage is made up of what cartilage?

Hyaline cartilage

50

What is the function of arytenoid cartilage?

Anchor the vocal folds (true vocal cords)

51

What cartilage makes up corniculate cartilage?

Hyaline cartilage

52

Corniculate cartilage forms what part of what wall of the larynx?

Part of the posterior wall

53

What cartilage makes up cuneiform cartilage?

Hyaline cartilage

54

Cuneiform cartilage forms what of the laryngeal wall?

The lateral aspect of the laryngeal wall

55

What cartilage makes up the epiglottis?

Elastic cartilage

56

What is the epiglottis's function during swallowing?

Forms a lid over the larynx during swallowing

57

The vocal folds (true vocal folds) are composed of what fibers?

Elastic fibers

58

What is the function of the vocal folds (true vocal folds)?

Vibrate with expired air for sound production

59

What fibers make up the vestibular folds (false vocal folds)?

Elastic fibers

60

What are the 2 functions of the vestibular folds?

1. Protect the vocal folds

2. Close the glottis when we swallow

61

The glottis plays a role in what maneuver?

Valsalva maneuver

62

The glottis is made up of what 2 structures?

1. Vocal folds

2. Slitlike passageway between the vocal folds

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