A&P Practice Questions Final Chapter 27 Flashcards


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1

Sexual reproduction entails the union of two gonads to form a zygote. 


  1. True
  2. False

B

2

The presence of the Y chromosome guarantees the development of male secondary sex organs.

  1. True
  2. False

B

3

The mechanism that keeps the testes cooler than the body's core temperature is called descent of the testes. 


  1. True
  2. False

B

4

The scrotum contains the testes and spermatic cords. 


  1. True
  2. False

A

5

Sperm travels to the ampulla of the ductus deferens before reaching the spermatic cord. 


  1. True
  2. False

B

6

Sustentacular cells secrete inhibin, which regulates the rate of sperm production. 


  1. True
  2. False

A

7

Testosterone stimulates development of the secondary sex characteristics, spermatogenesis, and libido. 


  1. True
  2. False

A

8

Erectile dysfunction prevents ejaculation in most cases. 


  1. True
  2. False

B

9

At early puberty, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulate enlargement of the testes. 


  1. True
  2. False

A

10

Spermiogenesis is the last stage of meiosis. 


  1. True
  2. False

B

11

Sperm make up just 10% of semen volume.

  1. True
  2. False

A

12

Only germ cells undergo meiosis, which produces four haploid cells with 23 chromosomes each.

  1. True
  2. False

A

13

Sympathetic nerve fibers trigger the secretion of nitric oxide, which dilates the deep arteries allowing blood to engorge the penis. 


  1. True
  2. False

B

14

The first haploid stage of spermatogenesis is prophase II.

  1. True
  2. False

A

15

Myotonia of skeletal muscles is characteristic of the excitement phase and refractory period. 


  1. True
  2. False

B

16

Which of the following is generally accepted as a secondary sex characteristic?

  1. The enlargement of the breasts
  2. The presence of testes
  3. The prostate gland
  4. The uterus
  5. The vagina

A

17

Which of the following are primary sex organs?

  1. Ova
  2. Uterine tubes
  3. Breasts 

  4. Ovaries
  5. Scent glands

D

18

Which of the following is a secondary sex organ?

  1. Testis
  2. Ovary 

  3. Vagina
  4. Facial hair
  5. Distribution of body fat

C

19

Gonads begin to develop __________ weeks after fertilization.

  1. 2 to 3 

  2. 5 to 6
  3. 8 to 9
  4. 20 to 24
  5. 36 to 38

B

20

Whether an organism will be genetically male or female is determined by __________.

  1. hormonal, genetic and environmental factors
  2. prenatal hormone exposure
  3. the egg 

  4. the sperm
  5. the egg and sperm equally

D

21

The gene that codes for the testis-determining factor (TDF) is found in or on the __________. 


  1. Y chromosome
  2. X chromosome
  3. gonadal ridges
  4. fetal testes
  5. mesonephros

A

22

The penis is homologous to the __________.

  1. labia minora
  2. mons pubis
  3. urethra
  4. vagina 

  5. clitoris

E

23

The __________ is the gonad and the __________ is the gamete.

  1. testis; ovary
  2. testis; semen 

  3. testis; sperm
  4. sperm; semen
  5. semen; sperm

C

24

Descent of the testes is stimulated by the __________.

  1. presence of Y chromosome
  2. presence of the X chromosome
  3. absence of the X chromosome 

  4. presence of testosterone
  5. presence of estrogens

D

25

The __________ is an example of the female external genitalia.

  1. scrotum 

  2. clitoris
  3. uterine tube
  4. seminal vesicle
  5. vagina

B

26

The __________ is the small, bilateral organ found lateral to the membranous urethra.

  1. seminal vesicle
  2. urethra 

  3. bulbourethral gland
  4. prostate gland
  5. ejaculatory duct

C

27

The golf-ball sized structure found inferior to the urinary bladder, and surrounding the most proximal portion of the urethra, is called the __________.

  1. seminal vesicle
  2. urethra
  3. bulbourethral gland

  4. prostate gland
  5. ejaculatory duct

D

28

The __________ is the site of sperm maturation and storage.

  1. spermatic cord 

  2. epididymis
  3. rete testis
  4. seminiferous tubules
  5. ductus (vas) deferens

B

29

The deep region of the penis, surrounding the urethra, that engorges with blood during an erection is known as the ___________.

  1. epididymis 

  2. corpus spongiosum
  3. corpus cavernosum
  4. scrotum
  5. ductus (vas) deferens

B

30

Which of the following is the correct pathway of sperm cells from their formation to ejaculation?

  1. Seminiferous tubule, epididymis, rete testis, urethra, ejaculatory duct, ductus deferens
  2. Seminiferous tubule, epididymis, rete testis, ejaculatory duct, ductus deferens, urethra
  3. Seminiferous tubule, epididymis, rete testis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra 

  4. Seminiferous tubule, rete testis, epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra
  5. Seminiferous tubule, rete testis, epididymis, ejaculatory duct, urethra, ductus deferens

D

31

When it is cold, the __________ contracts and draws the testes closer to the body to keep them warm.

  1. cremaster muscle
  2. pampiniform plexus
  3. corpus spongiosum
  4. perineum
  5. corpus cavernosum

A

32

The countercurrent heat exchanger that prevents arterial blood from overheating the testes is the __________.

  1. rete testis
  2. epididymis 

  3. pampiniform plexus of veins
  4. blood-testis barrier
  5. scrotal portal system

C

33

Which of the following is true regarding the blood-testis barrier? 


  1. It prevents antibodies in the blood from getting to the germ cells.
  2. It prevents heat loss from the testes.
  3. It prevents blood from getting to the testes.
  4. It maintains testis temperature at 35C.
  5. It maintains testis temperature at 37C.

A

34

By volume, most of the semen is produced in the __________.

  1. testes
  2. penis
  3. prostate gland 

  4. seminal vesicles
  5. bulbourethral glands

D

35

Which of the following are not found in or around the seminiferous tubules?

  1. Interstitial (Leydig) cells
  2. Germ cells
  3. Sustentacular (Sertoli) cells
  4. Spermatids 

  5. Corpus cavernosum cells

E

36

The penile urethra is enclosed by the __________.

  1. corpus cavernosum 

  2. corpus spongiosum
  3. trabecular muscle
  4. prepuce
  5. frenulum

B

37

Men have only one __________.

  1. bulbourethral gland 

  2. prostate gland
  3. ejaculatory duct
  4. seminal vesicle
  5. corpus cavernosum

B

38

Why would an enlarged prostate gland interfere with urination?

  1. It inhibits urine production.
  2. It develops calcified deposits that block the urethra.
  3. It produces thicker prostatic secretions that block the urethra.
  4. It inhibits the micturition reflex. 

  5. It compresses the urethra.

E

39

The penis is innervated by the __________ nerve. 


  1. internal pudendal
  2. obturator
  3. penile
  4. ventral
  5. external pudendal

A

40

Which of the following does not play a role in thermoregulation of the testes?

  1. The bulbospongiosus muscle
  2. The cremaster muscle
  3. The pampiniform plexus of veins
  4. The countercurrent heat exchanger
  5. The dartos muscle

A

41

When do the testes start secreting testosterone? 


  1. In the first trimester of fetal development
  2. In the first trimester after birth
  3. In the first three years after birth
  4. In the first three years of adolescence
  5. After the first ejaculation

A

42

Which of the following hormones directly stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics?

  1. Estrogen
  2. Inhibin
  3. Luteinizing hormone
  4. Follicle stimulating hormone 

  5. Testosterone

E

43

Which of the following is an androgen?

  1. Estrogen
  2. Progesterone 

  3. Testosterone
  4. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  5. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

C

44

__________ stimulates the interstitial cells of the testes to secrete __________.

  1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH); LH
  2. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); androgen-binding protein (ABP)
  3. Luteinizing hormone (LH); androgen-binding protein (ABP) 

  4. Luteinizing hormone (LH); testosterone
  5. Luteinizing hormone (LH); estrogen

D

45

Which hormone suppresses spermatogenesis without affecting testosterone secretion?

  1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
  2. Testosterone itself 

  3. Inhibin
  4. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  5. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

C

46

The __________ has/have no androgen receptors and do/does not respond to it. 


  1. germ cells
  2. muscular tissue
  3. sustentacular cells
  4. hypothalamus
  5. pituitary gland

A

47

Which of the following is inhibited by testosterone?

  1. Libido
  2. Development of secondary sex organs
  3. Development of secondary sex characteristics

  4. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion
  5. Sperm production

D

48

Changes called male climacteric are a consequence of a(n) __________.

  1. increased secretion of estrogens
  2. increased secretion of progesterone

  3. decreased secretion of testosterone
  4. increased secretion of FSH and LH
  5. increased secretion of GnRH

C

49

The haploid result of meiosis I is called a __________.

  1. spermatogonium 

  2. secondary spermatocyte
  3. primary spermatocyte
  4. spermatid
  5. sperm

B

50

In the process of spermiogenesis, __________ become __________.

  1. spermatocytes; spermatozoa
  2. spermatozoa; spermatids
  3. spermatogonia; spermatocytes
  4. spermatocytes; spermatids 

  5. spermatids; spermatozoa

E

51

In meiosis, each parent cell produces __________.

  1. two haploid cells 

  2. four haploid cells
  3. two diploid cells
  4. four diploid cells
  5. haploid cells that are identical to the parent cell

B

52

The process of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis begins with a __________ and ends with four __________.

  1. sperm cell; interstitial cells
  2. sperm cell; sustentacular cells
  3. secondary spermatocyte; spermatocytes in general
  4. secondary spermatocyte; germ cells

  5. germ cell; gametes

E

53

At the end of meiosis I there are __________, whereas at the end of meiosis II there is/are __________.

  1. two diploid cells; one diploid cell
  2. two diploid cells; one haploid cell
  3. two diploid cells; four haploid cells 

  4. two haploid cells; four haploid cells
  5. two haploid cells; one diploid cell

D

54

Which of the following is the most important role of meiosis in sexual reproduction?

  1. It reduces the size of the gametes.
  2. It produces at least one gamete that is mobile. 

  3. It prevents the chromosome number from doubling in each generation.
  4. It ensures that each daughter cell doubles the number of chromosomes.
  5. It changes the genetic composition of each chromosome.

C

55

At what stage does a developing sperm cell begin to grow a tail?

  1. Spermatozoon 

  2. Spermatid
  3. Primary spermatocyte
  4. Secondary spermatocyte
  5. Spermatogonium

B

56

Sperm cells get energy to power their movement from __________, which is contributed by the __________.

  1. prostaglandins; prostate gland
  2. sucrose; bulbourethral gland 

  3. fructose; seminal vesicles
  4. seminogelin; prostate gland
  5. semen; seminiferous gland

C

57

Male infertility (sterility) refers to _________. 


  1. the inability to fertilize an egg
  2. low sperm count
  3. a lack of seminal fluid during ejaculation
  4. low levels of testosterone
  5. the inability to have an erection

A

58

The acrosome contains enzymes used to __________.

  1. dissolve the mucosa of the vagina
  2. dissolve the mucosa of the uterus
  3. dissolve the stickiness of the semen
  4. penetrate the vagina 

  5. penetrate barriers surrounding the ovum

E

59

__________ have 46 chromosomes, whereas __________ have 23.

  1. Spermatids; spermatozoa 

  2. Primary spermatocytes; spermatids
  3. Secondary spermatocytes; primary spermatocytes
  4. Spermatogonia; primary spermatocytes
  5. Type A spermatogonia; type B spermatogonia

B

60

A sperm count any lower than __________ million sperm per mL of semen is usually associated with infertility (sterility).

  1. 250 to 500
  2. 200 to 250
  3. 100 to 200
  4. 50 to 100 

  5. 20 to 25

E

61

Dilation of the __________ causes the lacunae to fill with blood and the penis to become erect.

  1. helicine arteries
  2. internal pudendal (penile) arteries
  3. dorsal arteries
  4. dorsal veins 

  5. deep arteries

E

62

The orgasm-emission phase of the male sexual response is stimulated by __________.

  1. efferent sympathetic signals from the sacral region of the spinal cord 

  2. efferent sympathetic signals from the lumbar region of the spinal cord
  3. efferent parasympathetic signals from the sacral region of the spinal cord
  4. efferent parasympathetic signals from the lumbar region of the spinal cord
  5. efferent somatic signals from the thoracic region of the spinal cord

B

63

Which of the following explains the neural mechanism of an erection? 


  1. It is an autonomic reflex mediated predominantly by parasympathetic nerve fibers.
  2. It is an autonomic reflex mediated predominantly by sympathetic nerve fibers.
  3. It is a somatic reflex mediated predominantly by parasympathetic nerve fibers.
  4. It is a somatic reflex mediated predominantly by sympathetic nerve fibers.
  5. It is an exclusively voluntary action mediated by the cerebral cortex.

A

64

Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate peak during the __________.

  1. excitement phase
  2. erection of the penis 

  3. climax (orgasm)
  4. plateau phase
  5. resolution phase

C

65

Sildenafil (Viagra) prolongs erection by __________.

  1. activating nitric oxide (NO) production
  2. inactivating guanylate cyclase
  3. stimulating production of cGMP 

  4. inhibiting degradation of cGMP
  5. inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production

D

66

Which of the following is not a change in the male body that results from puberty?

  1. Deepening of the voice
  2. Gain in muscle mass
  3. Growth of the scrotum and penis
  4. Acne 

  5. These are all changes associated with male puberty.

E

67

Which of the following is not a function of the sustentacular cells?

  1. They secrete inhibin.
  2. They secrete androgen-binding protein. 

  3. They secrete testosterone.
  4. They protect and support the germ cells.
  5. Their tight junctions form the blood-testis barrier.

C