A&P Practice Questions Final Chapter 26 Flashcards
Body weight is stable when average daily energy intake and output are
Gut-brain peptides are secreted by the brain and target the
Norepinephrine stimulates cravings for carbohydrates, whereas
endorphins stimulate cravings for proteins.
Aerobic respiration is more efficient than anaerobic fermentation,
but the latter is oxygen-independent.
Glucose in excess of the body's immediate needs is usually converted
Both glycogenesis and gluconeogenesis are examples of catabolic
Most body fat in overweight people is stored in the integumentary
Consumption of excess calories during adulthood causes adipocytes to
The most abundant nitrogenous waste in blood is urea, which is
produced by the combination of ammonia with carbon dioxide.
The absorptive state lasts about fifteen minutes after a meal.
The absorptive state is regulated mainly by insulin, whereas the
postabsorptive state is regulated by multiple hormones.
Mental state does not affect metabolic rate.
When a person is active, most of the body heat is generated in the
brain, heart, and endocrine glands.
Hypothermia may be fatal if the core body temperature reaches 37°C or lower.
The heat-promoting center is located in the hypothalamus, which
__________ are short term regulators of appetite, whereas __________
is a long-term regulator.
A. Insulin and cholecystokinin (CCK); peptide YY (PYY)
B. Peptide YY (PYY) and insulin; cholecystokinin (CCK)
C. Peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK); insulin
D. Leptin and insulin; cholecystokinin (CCK)
E. Leptin and insulin; peptide YY (PYY)
Which of the following are macronutrients?
A. Sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphorous
B. Nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
C. Sodium, potassium, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
D. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water
E. Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, but not water
__________ yield about 4 kcal/g when completely oxidized, whereas
__________ yield about 9 kcal/g.
A. Proteins and carbohydrates; fats
B. Proteins; fats and carbohydrates
C. Fats; carbohydrates and proteins
D. Carbohydrates; fats and proteins
E. Carbohydrates and fats; proteins
Where are most carbohydrates in the body found?
A. Adipose tissue
B. Muscle glycogen
C. Blood glucose
D. Liver glycogen
E. Pancreas glucose
Carbohydrates function as structural components in all of the
following except __________.
C. nucleic acids
D. amino acids
Which of the following is not a function of lipids?
A. They form the plasma membrane structure.
B. They form myelin around nerve fibers.
C. They form the structure of some hormones.
D. They provide cushioning around soft organs.
E. They form skeletal muscle fibers.
Which of the following constitutes the so-called "bad
C. Low-density lipoproteins
D. High-density lipoproteins
E. Very-low-density lipoproteins
Which of the following is the healthiest ratio of triglycerides?
A. High HDL: low LDL
B. High LDL: low HDL
C. High LDL: low chylomicron
D. High SFA: low HDL
E. High chylomicron: low LDL
Where does HDL in the body come from?
A. The diet
B. The liver
C. The pancreas
D. The small intestine
E. The gallbladder
Which of the following is not a function of proteins in the
A. Muscle contraction
B. Transport of blood lipids
C. Maintaining blood viscosity and osmolarity
D. Catalyzing enzymatic reactions
E. Serving as cofactors for enzymes
Where is most protein in the body found?
A. In the skeletal system
B. In the muscular system
C. In the the cardiovascular system
D. In the integumentary system
E. In the lymphatic system
Who would you expect to be in a state of negative nitrogen balance?
A. A growing child
B. A pregnant woman
C. A weightlifter
D. A patient with muscle atrophy
E. A sprinter
High-quality __________ proteins are those that provide all the
essential amino acids.
Which vitamin deficiency is the most common worldwide?
A. Vitamin A
B. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
C. Vitamin C
D. Vitamin D
E. Vitamin E
Minerals are __________, whereas vitamins are __________.
A. micronutrients; macronutrients
B. water-soluble elements; lipid-soluble compounds
C. inorganic elements; organic compounds
D. inessential nutrients; essential nutrients
E. incomplete nutrients; complete nutrients
Which of the following represents the overall reaction for aerobic
A. C6H12O6 + 6 H2O ® 6 CO2 + 6 O2
B. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ® 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
C. C6H12O6 + 6 CO2 ® 6 O2 + 6 H2O
D. 6 CO2 + 6 H2O ® C6H12O6 + 6 O2
E. 6 O2+ 6 H2O ® C6H12O6 + 6 CO2
Which of the following is a product of glycolysis?
B. Carbon dioxide
C. Lactic acid
D. Pyruvic acid
Which of these processes is essential for all of the rest to happen?
B. Citric acid cycle
C. Lactic acid reduction
D. Electron transport chain
E. Anaerobic fermentation
__________ happens in the cytoplasm, whereas __________ happens in
A. The citric acid (Krebs) cycle; mitochondrial electron-transport
B. Aerobic respiration; anaerobic fermentation
C. Glycolysis; the citric acid (Krebs) cycle
D. Anaerobic fermentation; glycolysis
E. Glycolysis; pyruvic acid reduction
Which of the following is true concerning oxygen in regards to
A. It transports electrons to the mitochondrion.
B. It directly transfers electrons and protons to NAD+ and FAD.
C. It directly receives electrons and protons from NAD+ and FAD.
D. It is the only substrate of aerobic respiration.
E. It is the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration.
What is the synthesis of glucose from amino acids called?
E. Glycogen catabolism
Which of the following is a final product of aerobic respiration?
A. Carbon dioxide
B. Pyruvic acid
C. Lactic acid
What process produces most of the NADH that contributes to ATP
synthesis in the cell?
B. The citric acid cycle
C. Anaerobic fermentation
D. The mitochondrial proton pumps
E. The electron transfer from FADH2
Glycolysis and aerobic respiration collectively produce up to
____________ ATP per glucose, whereas anaerobic fermentation produces
A. 2; about the same, varying from one tissue to another
B. 32; none
C. 32; 2
D. 32; 36
E. 36; about the same, varying from one tissue to another
Which of the following compounds yields the most ATP per molecule?
B. Pyruvic acid
D. Lactic acid
The inner membrane of a mitochondrion contains the protein
__________, which harnesses the energy created by H+ flow
to produce ATP by a process called __________.
A. enzyme complex; reduction
B. ATP synthase; oxidation
C. enzyme complex; proton pumping
D. ATP synthase; the chemiosmotic mechanism
E. cytochrome c; reduction
Most of the fat in the body is stored in what form?
E. Fatty acids
Fatty acids are catabolized through which process?
A. Beta oxidation
E. The fat-sparing effect
Incomplete fatty acid oxidation produces __________, which might lead
A. triglycerides; new triglycerides
B. ketone bodies; acidosis
C. pyruvic acid; acidosis
D. glycerol; alkalosis
E. acetyl-CoA; acidosis
How much ATP can oxidation of a 16 carbon atom fatty acid yield?
A. 2 ATP
B. 18 ATP
C. 36 ATP
D. 38 ATP
E. 129 ATP
Where does the highest rate of tissue protein turnover occur?
A. The intestinal mucosa
B. The gastric mucosa
C. The hepatic sinusoids
D. The splenic sinusoids
E. The pancreatic islets
The first step in using amino acids as fuel is to __________ them.
Which of the following is not a function of the liver?
D. Secretion of digestive enzymes
E. Synthesis of plasma proteins
Which metabolic process produces ammonia?
A. Beta oxidation of a-ketoglutaric acid
C. Transamination of urea
D. Amination of keto acids
E. Deamination of glutamic acid
The liver performs all of the following functions except
A. converting ammonia to urea
B. carrying out most beta oxidation
C. producing insulin and glucagon
D. synthesizing cholesterol
E. synthesizing glucose from fats and amino acids
Which of the following occurs during the postabsorptive state?
A. Blood glucose rises
B. Glycerol is used for gluconeogenesis
C. Lipids are stored in adipose tissue
D. Glucose is stored by glycogenesis
E. Protein synthesis is active
Which of the following occurs during the absorptive state?
A. Glucagon levels increase
B. Blood glucose falls
C. Fatty acids are oxidized for fuel
D. Lipolysis is occurring
E. Gluconeogenesis is suppressed
Which of the following is secreted during the postabsorptive state?
C. Growth hormone
Which of the following does not raise the total metabolic
D. Eating a big meal
When should the basal metabolic rate be measured?
A. When a person is sleeping
B. When a person first rises in the morning
C. When a person has just eaten a meal of no more than 2000 kcal
D. When a person is in the absorptive state
E. When a person is engaged in normal physical activity but not strenuous exercise
Which of the following does not explain why people on
weight-loss diets often lose weight quickly at first, but then more
slowly over time?
A. Water is lost quickly but other weight is harder to lose.
B. The initial weight loss is mostly fat.
C. As a diet progresses, the body produces more fat even with the same caloric intake.
D. The body lowers its metabolic rate when it loses weight.
E. Will power often weakens as the diet progresses.
Fats should account for about __________ percent of the daily caloric
Glycogenesis is stimulated by __________, whereas glycogenolysis is
stimulated by __________.
A. insulin; glucagon and epinephrine
B. insulin; aldosterone
C. growth hormone; glucagon and epinephrine
D. growth hormone; cortisol
E. growth hormone; insulin
Approximately what percentage of the energy in a glucose molecule
winds up in ATP with the rest lost as body heat?
During periods of fasting, why is fat said to have a protein-sparing
A. The body oxidizes its spare protein before it depletes its fat reserves.
B. The body metabolizes fats and proteins through the same metabolic pathways.
C. The body must have an adequate fat intake in order to absorb and metabolize proteins.
D. The body must have an adequate protein intake in order to absorb and metabolize fats.
E. The body does not oxidize its proteins unless it has consumed its fat reserves first.
A nude body at a room temperature of 21°C (70°F) loses most of its
heat by which process?
E. Forced convection
Which of the following enhances loss of body heat by conduction?
C. Nonshivering thermogenesis
D. Shivering thermogenesis
What is the quickest physiological mechanism for achieving moderate
B. Cutaneous vasoconstriction
C. Nonshivering thermogenesis
D. Cutaneous vasodilation
Shivering warms the body because it increases the rate of what?
C. ATP hydrolysis
Which of the following results in heat exhaustion?
A. Extreme electrolyte loss via sweat
B. Denaturation of proteins in the brain tissue
C. Excessive heat loss from the body
D. A high rate of conduction and convection
E. A high humidity that retards evaporative cooling
Which of the following is not a major class of nutrients?
C. Nucleic acids
Three hours after your lunch and you are absorbing nutrients, which
digestive phase are you in?
A. Postabsorptive state
B. Absorptive state
C. Gastric state
D. Vasoactive state
How is the basal metabolic rate (BMR) different from the total
metabolic rate (TMR)?
A. The BMR includes the TMR.
B. The TMR includes the BMR.
C. The BMR is calculated when one is asleep.
D. The BMR includes energy expenditures for muscular contractions.
Which of the following is the primary source of body heat?
A. Nutrient oxidation
B. The sun
Which of the following is true regarding body temperature?
A. Oral temperature is a good way to estimate core temperature.
B. Adult oral temperature is typically 36.6° to 37.0°C.
C. Body temperature is highest in the afternoon.
D. Organs in the spinal cavity are at the shell temperature.
Where would you measure the shell temperature of a patient?
A. Their skin
B. Their rectum
C. Their abdominal cavity
D. Their thoracic cavity