The Immune Response

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1

What are 2 functions of the adaptive immune system?

1. Recognize foreign substances

2. Destroy/neutralize foreign substances

2

Describe a successful immune response.

When foreign substances are recognized and destroyed/neutralized

3

What type of response is the immune response?

Systemic response

4

Is the immune response restricted to the initial infection site?

No

5

When working effectively, the immune response protects us from what 4 threats?

1. Bacterial infections

2. Viral infections

3. Bacterial toxins

4. Cancer

6

What are 3 of the most important characteristics of the immune response?

1. Memory

2. Specificity

3. Self-tolerance

7

What are antigens?

Foreign substances that are capable of provoking an immune response

8

Are antigens capable of reacting with products of the immune response?

Yes

9

Give 6 examples of substances that can be antigenic.

1. Foreign proteins

2. Polysaccharides

3. Bacteria and their toxins

4. Viruses

5. Mismatched RBCs

6. Cancer cells

10

What are the cells that recognize antigens and initiate the immune response?

Lymphocytes

11

How does a lymphocyte recognize antigens, and what is significant about this process?

Each immunocompetent lymphocyte has receptors on its surface allowing it to bind with antigens, providing specificity

12

As a general rule, explain self-tolerance of the immune response.

Our own proteins are tolerated, meaning they do not act as antigens. Our immune system is able to distinguish our own tissues (self) from foreign antigens (non-self)

13

However, does an inability to recognize self ever occur?

Yes!

14

The inability of the immune system to recognize self results in what tissues being attacked?

Results in the body's own tissues being attacked

15

When the body's immune system attacks its own tissues/cells, what is this phenomenon called?

Autoimmunity

16

Give 5 examples of autoimmunity disease.

1. Multiple sclerosis (MS)

2. Myasthenia gravis

3. Grave's disease

4. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

5. Diabetes mellitus

17

The immune system utilizes what 2 groups of organs and tissues?

1. Lymphoid organs

2. Lymphoid tissues

18

The lymphoid organs and tissues include what 6 components?

1. Thymus

2. Lymph nodes

3. Spleen

4. Tonsils

5. Appendix

6. Red bone marrow

19

What 2 lymphoid components are considered primary lymphpoid organs?

1. Thymus

2. Red bone marrow

20

What 4 lymphoid components are considered secondary lymphoid organs?

1. Spleen

2. Tonsils

3. Lymph nodes

4. Appendix

21

What are the 2 primary cells that provide for the immune response?

1. B lymphocytes (B cells)

2. T lymphocytes (T cells)

22

B and T lymphocytes/cells both originate where?

Red bone marrow

23

B and T lymphocytes/cells each must go through what process?

Maturation process

24

The maturation process of B and T lymphocytes/cells results in what 2 function gains?

1. Immunocompetence

2. Self-tolerance

25

Describe immunocompentence.

The addition of receptors on the cell surface that recognize and bind to specific antigens.

26

Describe self-tolerance.

Involves the cell's ability to distinguish self from nonself.

27

Where do B lymphocytes/B cells mature?

Red bone marrow

28

Where do T lymphocytes/T cells mature?

Thymus

29

After maturation, B and T lymphocytes/cells do what 2 things? (Hint: leave and enter)

1. Leave the red bone marrow and thymus respectively

2. Enter the blood stream

30

After B and T lymphocytes/cells enter the blood stream, where do they travel to?

Peripheral or secondary lymphoid organs

31

In secondary lymphoid organs, what happens to B and T lymphocytes/cells?

Clonal selection

32

How is clonal selection triggered?

When an antigen binds to the surface receptors of a B or T lymphocyte/cell

33

When clonal selection is triggered, what happens to the lymphocytes?

It proliferates rapidly, forming many clones of like cells all bearing the same antigen-specific receptors

34

What 2 groups of cells may be formed as the progeny of the clone is exposed to certain regulatory signals?

1. Some form memory cells

2. Others become effector cells

35

Upon subsequent meetings with the same antigen, what happens to the immune response?

It proceeds a lot faster because the lymphocytes recognize the antigen

36

If T lymphocytes fail to differentiate in the thymus, what 2 functions are depressed?

1. Antibody immune functions

2. Cell-mediated immune functions

37

What is correlated with the thymus shrinking with age?

Decline in immune function

38

1. B lymphocytes provide what type of immune response?

2. T lymphocytes provide what type of immune response?

1. Humoral immunity

2. Cellular immunity

39

Humoral immunity is aka?

Antibody-mediated immunity

40

Cellular immunity is aka?

Cell-mediated immunity

41

1. What is the maturation site for B lymphocytes?

2. What is the maturation site for T lymphocytes?

1. Red bone marrow

2. Thymus

42

1. What are the effector cells of B lymphocytes?

2. What are the 3 effector cells of T lymphocytes?

1. Plasma cells

2. Cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, regulatory T cells

43

Plasma cells secrete what?

Antibodies

44

Antibodies work in what 2 ways?

1. Inactivate antigen

2. Tag antigen for destruction

45

What are the functions of cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells?

1. Cytotoxic T cells attack infected cells and tumor cells

2. Helper T cells activate B cells and other T cells

46

Do B and T lymphocytes both form memory cells?

Yes