The Immune Response
What are 2 functions of the adaptive immune system?
1. Recognize foreign substances
2. Destroy/neutralize foreign substances
Describe a successful immune response.
When foreign substances are recognized and destroyed/neutralized
What type of response is the immune response?
Is the immune response restricted to the initial infection site?
When working effectively, the immune response protects us from what 4 threats?
1. Bacterial infections
2. Viral infections
3. Bacterial toxins
What are 3 of the most important characteristics of the immune response?
What are antigens?
Foreign substances that are capable of provoking an immune response
Are antigens capable of reacting with products of the immune response?
Give 6 examples of substances that can be antigenic.
1. Foreign proteins
3. Bacteria and their toxins
5. Mismatched RBCs
6. Cancer cells
What are the cells that recognize antigens and initiate the immune response?
How does a lymphocyte recognize antigens, and what is significant about this process?
Each immunocompetent lymphocyte has receptors on its surface allowing it to bind with antigens, providing specificity
As a general rule, explain self-tolerance of the immune response.
Our own proteins are tolerated, meaning they do not act as antigens. Our immune system is able to distinguish our own tissues (self) from foreign antigens (non-self)
However, does an inability to recognize self ever occur?
The inability of the immune system to recognize self results in what tissues being attacked?
Results in the body's own tissues being attacked
When the body's immune system attacks its own tissues/cells, what is this phenomenon called?
Give 5 examples of autoimmunity disease.
1. Multiple sclerosis (MS)
2. Myasthenia gravis
3. Grave's disease
4. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
5. Diabetes mellitus
The immune system utilizes what 2 groups of organs and tissues?
1. Lymphoid organs
2. Lymphoid tissues
The lymphoid organs and tissues include what 6 components?
2. Lymph nodes
6. Red bone marrow
What 2 lymphoid components are considered primary lymphpoid organs?
2. Red bone marrow
What 4 lymphoid components are considered secondary lymphoid organs?
3. Lymph nodes
What are the 2 primary cells that provide for the immune response?
1. B lymphocytes (B cells)
2. T lymphocytes (T cells)
B and T lymphocytes/cells both originate where?
Red bone marrow
B and T lymphocytes/cells each must go through what process?
The maturation process of B and T lymphocytes/cells results in what 2 function gains?
The addition of receptors on the cell surface that recognize and bind to specific antigens.
Involves the cell's ability to distinguish self from nonself.
Where do B lymphocytes/B cells mature?
Red bone marrow
Where do T lymphocytes/T cells mature?
After maturation, B and T lymphocytes/cells do what 2 things? (Hint: leave and enter)
1. Leave the red bone marrow and thymus respectively
2. Enter the blood stream
After B and T lymphocytes/cells enter the blood stream, where do they travel to?
Peripheral or secondary lymphoid organs
In secondary lymphoid organs, what happens to B and T lymphocytes/cells?
How is clonal selection triggered?
When an antigen binds to the surface receptors of a B or T lymphocyte/cell
When clonal selection is triggered, what happens to the lymphocytes?
It proliferates rapidly, forming many clones of like cells all bearing the same antigen-specific receptors
What 2 groups of cells may be formed as the progeny of the clone is exposed to certain regulatory signals?
1. Some form memory cells
2. Others become effector cells
Upon subsequent meetings with the same antigen, what happens to the immune response?
It proceeds a lot faster because the lymphocytes recognize the antigen
If T lymphocytes fail to differentiate in the thymus, what 2 functions are depressed?
1. Antibody immune functions
2. Cell-mediated immune functions
What is correlated with the thymus shrinking with age?
Decline in immune function
1. B lymphocytes provide what type of immune response?
2. T lymphocytes provide what type of immune response?
1. Humoral immunity
2. Cellular immunity
Humoral immunity is aka?
Cellular immunity is aka?
1. What is the maturation site for B lymphocytes?
2. What is the maturation site for T lymphocytes?
1. Red bone marrow
1. What are the effector cells of B lymphocytes?
2. What are the 3 effector cells of T lymphocytes?
1. Plasma cells
2. Cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, regulatory T cells
Plasma cells secrete what?
Antibodies work in what 2 ways?
1. Inactivate antigen
2. Tag antigen for destruction
What are the functions of cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells?
1. Cytotoxic T cells attack infected cells and tumor cells
2. Helper T cells activate B cells and other T cells
Do B and T lymphocytes both form memory cells?