Respiratory System

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 5 years ago by alesalinas1
519 views
Understanding Respiration
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Studies the overall exchange of gases in

  • Atmosphere
  • Blood
  • Cells
2

Breathing, which is the inflow and outflow of air between the atmosphere and lungs

Pulmonary Ventilation

3

The exchange of gases between the Lungs and Blood

External Respiration

4

The exchange of gases between Blood and cells

Internal Respiration

5

The respiratory system is divided by structures, which are

  1. Nose
  2. Pharynx
  3. Larynx
  4. Trachea
  5. Corina
  6. Branchi
  7. Bronchioles
  8. Bronchopulmonary Segments
  9. Lobule
  10. Alviolus
  11. Lungs
6

The Nose is divided in 3 main structures

  1. External Structure
  2. Internal Structure
  3. Nasal Cavity
7

External Structure includes

  • External nares (nostrils),
  • hyaline cartilage,
  • muscle
  • skin
  • Nasal bones
8

Internal Structure includes

  • Internal nares,
  • nasal cavity
  • nasal septum
  • vestibule,
  • nasal conchae
9

Nasal Septum includes

  1. Perpendicular Plate of Ethmoid Bone
  2. Vomer Bone
  3. Superior, Medial and Inferior Nasal Conchae
10

The function of the Nasal Cavity is

  • Warm and filter the air
  • receive smell sensation
  • Hollow chambers for speech sounds.
11

The pharynx is also known as the

Throat

12

Pharynx is divided in three areas

  • Nasopharynx
  • Oropharynx
  • Laringopharynx
13

It is considered the "Voice Box"

Larynx

14

Larynx contains

  • Comprised of cartilage,
  • Contains the vocal folds
15

The 4 main sections or areas of Larynx are ...

  • Thyroid Cartilage (Adam's apple)
  • Cricoid Cartilage
  • Epiglottis
  • Glottis
16

Epiglotis covers the _____________, which is the opening to the ______________ tract

  1. Glottis
  2. Respiratory
17

Epiglotis is made of _______________ covered with___________.

Epiglotis tips _________ during swallowing when the larynx moves _________, air can enter the Respiratory System

  1. elastic cartilage
  2. mucosa
  3. inferiorly or down
  4. superiorly or up
18

2/3rd down or Larynx is made of

ciliated columnar elastic cartilage

19

Remember the cilia in the nasal cavity pushes ________ toward the pharynx; while the cilia in the larynx pushes __________ to get stuff into the pharynx to then go in the stomach.

  1. Down
  2. Up
20

This is known as the "wind-pipe"

Trachea

21

These cartilage rings made of ___________ prevent collapse Trachea, so that you don’t have to re-inflate this tube on top of having to take a breath, so you’re always able to breathe easily.

Hyaline Cartilage

22

Trachea's structure consists of

  • Tracheal Ring
  • Trachealis muscle
  • Lining of Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  • Smooth muscle
23

Trachea rings are not a full circle, it’s like a ___________ or horse-shoe shape.

In the posterior part where it’s incomplete we’re going to find the ____________ muscle, which is a ______ muscle. It gives the ___-shape form instead of the C-shape

When you cough or sneeze this muscle contracts rapidly to really accelerate that air to 100mph, to try to get whatever is bothering you, out of your body.

  1. C-Shape
  2. Trachealis muscle
  3. Smooth Muscle
  4. D-shape
24

So coughing and sneezing is really a _____________ mechanism.

Protective

25

____________ muscle allows trachea to expand when swallowing

Smooth

26

Lining inside the trachea, there is a ______________________________ where the cilia sweep ____wards.

  1. pseudostratified ciliated epithelium
  2. Up
27

Below the pseudostratified ciliated epithelium there is a ____________ and _____________ section where submucosa glands are secreting to keep humid the internal trachea walls.

  1. Mucosa
  2. Submucosa
28

At the _____________ of the trachea (the very bottom of the trachea, where the trachea splits into _________ bronchus).

  1. carina
  2. Primary
29

Carina is made of __________, however the % of cartilage ________________ as you go deeper into the respiratory tract, and the % of __________ muscle __________

  1. Cartilage
  2. Decreases
  3. Smooth
  4. Increases
30

the mucosa is extra sensitive to irritants and often triggers the ___________ reflex.

cough

31

The composition of the tissue is going to change as we go from big tubes to smaller and smaller branches.

First we start with _____________ rings, then they don’t go so far around and they’re called cartilage __________ then there’s not gonna be anymore cartilage.

  1. Cartilage
  2. Plates
32

As for the cell type, we start off with…

  1. Ciliated pseudo-stratified columnar on the top then
  2. Ciliated simple columnar,
  3. Ciliated simple cuboidal,
  4. Simple cuboidal (no more cilia nor mucous-producing goblet cells) - Terminal bronchioles
33

The trachialis smooth muscle changes from only a posterior location to an encircling location and thins out at the terminal bronchioles. Smooth muscle is controlled by the ____________________________: so of course a nerve from the parasympathetic and sympathetic system is going to innervate it to create a different effect.

  1. autonomic nervous system
34

When you’re gearing up for fight or flight (sympathetic shit) what are you going to need in terms of oxygen? LOTS OF IT. So the airways widen. The adrenal medulla releases ________________ and ______________ which are smooth muscle relaxants. So the smaller branches are going to widen.

  1. epinephrine and norepinephrine
35

Under the parasympathetic stimulation, the _________ is released which constricts the airways in case you don’t need so much air (rest and digest).

  1. ACh
36

Smoking inhibit and ultimately destroys _________. Without this expelling activity, coughing is the only way to prevent __________ from accumulating in the lungs.

For this reason. smokers should avoid medication that _________ the cough reflex.

  1. cilia
  2. mucus
  3. inhibit
37

Inflamation of the vocal folds or ______________ causes the vocal folds to __________, interfering with their vibrations.

  • Laryngitis
  • swell
38

The right Bronchus is ________, __________, wider, shorter and more vertical than the left, and is called_____________

  • Wider, shorter
  • Primari Right Bronchi
39

What is the benefit of these characteristics in the Right Bronchus

When inhaled, things falls into the right side because it is more vertical and short.

The left bronchi is laying more horizontal so things are less able to go in there.

And so both sides won't be blocked

40

Secondary bronchi divides into as many branches as there are ____________ of the lungs.

Right side has _____________

Left side has _____________

  • Lobes
  • 3
  • 2
41

______________ bronchi divides into smaller branches off the _______________ bronchi

  • Terciary
  • secondary
42

This structure no longer has cartilage, and is smaller than ________ mm in diameter. Also known as __________

  • Bronchioles
  • 1 mm
  • Little Bronchi
43

The tissue found in bronchioles is _____________

Elastic Fibers

44

What the body uses to remove debris found at or below the level of te bronchioles

Macrophages from the alvioli

45

An allergic reaction which causes constriction of the bronchioles is called _________________.

_______________ is used to relax the smooth muscle and open the airway.

  1. Asthma
  2. Epinephrine
46

It feeds many lobules and is called

Broncho-pulmonary Segment

47

A collection of alveoli is called ___________. It contains many alveoli, arterioles, venuoles, lymphatic vessels, and a terminal bronchiole.

Lobule

48

The Terminal Bronchiole lead to ___________ which terminate with the ___________.

  • alveolar ducts
  • alveoli
49
  • ___________ a sac made up of simple squamous epithelium.
  • Comprised of:
    1. ________________
    2. ________________
    3. ________________
  • Alveolus
    1. Simple Squamous Epitheilum
    2. Alveolar Macrophage
    3. Septal Cells or Type II alveolar cells
50

The _________ cells are also known as ____________, and produce "surfactant cell.

Surfactant Cell is a fluid which _________ surface tension in the alveolus thereby preventing their collapsing.

  • Septal Cells
  • Type II Cells
  • reduces
51

Alveolus' main function is...

  • Gas exchange occurs across the alveoli
52

A problem premmies have because the septal cells are not mature enough to produce Surfactant, is called

Respiratory Distress of the Newborn.

53

Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide can diffuse through the

Alveolar-Capillary Membrane

54

Alveolar-Capillary Membrane consists of:

a)

b)

c)

d)

  1. Simple Squamous ephitelium cells and alveolar macrophages
  2. Epithelial basement membrane
  3. Capillary basement membrane
  4. endothelial cells of the capillary
55
  1. Lungs are ______.
  2. The Right __________ has ___ ______.
  3. The Left __________ has ___ ______.
  1. two
  2. Lobe , 3 lobes
  3. Lobe , 2 lobes
56

The invagination in the lungs called the ___________ or __________ is where the primary bronchi and pulmonary arteries ________ the lungs, and the pulmonary veins ______ the lungs.

  • Hilum or Hilum
  • enter
  • exit
57

The Left Lung is shaped to keep an space for the heart, this area is called:

Cardiac Notch

58

A serous membrane sac surrounds each lung called______________________.

This serous membrane reflects back over the surface of each lung and is called the _______________________.

  • Parietal Pleura
  • Visceral Pleura
59

The exchange of gases (O2 and CO2) with the cells of the body is called

Respiration

60

The exchange of gas between the atmosphere and the lungs is called

Pulmonary Ventilation

61

Boyle's Law says ____________________________

"At constant temperature, the pressure ofa gas varies inversely with ints volume"

62

A decrease in the intra-thoracic pressure is known as _______________, causes an ____________ in the size of the thorax.

So, when air moves into the lungs, _________ Process causes de diaphragm to contract; therefore pressure ______, and volume __________.

  • Inspiration (inhale)
  • Increase
  • Active
  • Decreases
  • Increases
63

A Increase in the intra-thoracic pressure is known as _______________, causes an ____________ in the size of the thorax.

So, when air LEAVES the lungs, _________ Process causes de diaphragm to Relax; therefore pressure ______, and volume __________.

  • Expiration (exhale)
  • Decrease
  • Passive
  • Increases
  • Decreases
64

The action of a regular normal quiet breathing is called

Eupnea

65

Shallow breathing

Costal breating

66

A collapse of lungs caused by :

  • foreign object
  • mucus
  • pulmonary deseas
  • Derrame pulmonar
  • Antestesia

Atelectasis

67

The ease with the lungs and thoracic cavity expand and contract is called________________

It depends on:

1) ____________

2) ___________

  • Compliance

1) Elasticity of lungs (elastic fibers)

2) Surface Tension (lowered by surfactant)

68

The apparatus used to determine the lung volume is called_______________.

It could be _________ or _________ ___________

Spirometer

Wet Spirometer

Dry Spirometer

69

Spirometer measures the air that you breath ________

Out

70

Cells in Alveoli are :

  1. Type I Call / is the line of squamous epithelia forming the Alveolar-Capillary Membrane
  2. Type II Cell / Also known as Septal Cells ————————> produce Surfactant Cells
  3. Surfactant Cells —————> this fluid reduces surface tension, in the alveolus; preventing their collapsing.
  4. Macrophages
71

The volume of air breathed in and out during normal quiet breathing (eupnea) is called:_______________

It is about ______ml

  • Tidal Volume (TV)
  • 500 ml
72

The volume of air one can inhale above the tidal volume is called _____________________

It is about ________ ml

  • Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
  • 3100 ml
73

The volume of air one can exhale, after normal exhalation (TV) is called :_______________

It is about ___________ ml

  • Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
  • 1,200 ml
74
  • The amount of air which remains in the lungs after a maximal exhalation is called: ______________________, It is about _______ ml
  • ATTENTION: This is due to the ________ fluid, not allowing the alveoli to collapse.
  • Residual Volume (RV)
  • 1200 ml
  • surfactant fluid
75

The sum of the TV+IRV+ERV =____________

Vital Capacity (VC)

76

This lung volume measure includes TV+ERV+IRV+RV=__________________

  • Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
77

Respiration Rate is...

The number of respiration done in one minute

78

TV * Respiration Rate =

Minute Volume

79

Dalton's Law states that each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own ___________ as if all other gases were not present.

  • Pressure
80

This pressure is called _________________. The total presure of the mixture of gases is calculated by adding up all the _________________.

  • Partial Pressure
  • Partial Pressures
81

Atmospheric pressure = ________ mmHg

760

82

Atmospheric pressure (760mmHg) =_______________

pO2+pCO2+pN2+pH2O

83

External respiration is the exchange of gases between the Lungs and _________. It means the exchange of CO2 and O2 between the ___________ of lungs and the blood of the pulmonary _____________.

  • BLOOD
  • alveoli
  • capillaries
84

INTERNAL Respiration is the exchange of gases between the Blood and _________. It means the exchange of CO2 and O2 between the ___________ and __________ cells.

  • Cells
  • blood
  • tissue
85

We have to recall that Alveolus, millions of Air ______, made up of _____________ _____________ epithelium, which is surrounded by a thick ________-________ ________, of about ______ mm. Their surface area is about ______ sq.feet

  • sacs
  • Simple Squamous Epithelium
  • Alveolar-Capillary Membrane
  • .005 mm thick
  • 750 sq. feet
86

This is called __________ of __________, which occur because Oxygen is transported around the body by ____________ (Hb) in _____ blood cells (RBCs).

  • Transport of Gases
  • hemoglobin
  • red
87

As Oxygen does ______ easily dissolve in water.

___ % of oxygen is dissolved in plasma. For example:

100 ml of Oxygenated Blood contains ____ ml of dissolved oxygen in the plasma.

_____% of oxygen is carried by Hemoglobin as HbO2

  • NOT
  • 3%
  • 20 ml
  • 97%
88

Hb is able to bind to 4 oxygen molecules at a time forming ______________

Oxyhemoglobin (HbO2)

89

Hb+O2 <--->HbO2 is...

Oxygenated Hemoglobin

90

When Oxyhemoglobin (which acronym is _____) reaches the tissue, it releases its ______________, and becomes _________ again

  • HbO2
  • oxygen
  • hemoglobin
91

The partial pressure of O2 is expressed ______.

This partial pressure determines how much _____ combines with Hb.

  • pO2
  • O2
92

A mixture is fully saturated when we just find:

HbO2

93

A mixture is partially saturated when we find:

HbO2 + Hb

94

The % of HbO2 in the blood is called

Percent Saturation

95

It affects the respiration rate when H+ is involved affecting the _________ balance turning blood acid or alkaline.

pH

96

When H+ make the Blood more acid, causes HbO2 to ___________ and __________ oxygen

  • Dissociate
  • Release
97

Bohr Effects mentions, when H+ ions bind to Hb. Hb ______ its ______ carrying capacity

  • decreases
  • O2
98

The more CO2 in a liquid the ____________ the acidity of the liquid

  • greater
99

When ________ makes H+ ions create an acid environment, Hb realeses O2, CO2 levels too high, it provokes _____________.

The symptoms are breathing too slow or holding breath)

  • Acidosis
  • Hypoventillation
100

When ________ has made blood lose too much CO2, it provokes ________________

  • Alkalosis
  • Hyperventillation
101

Heat and cold affects also the Transport of gases. This is known as

Temperature

102

When an ______________ in temperature causes O2 to be released by Hb, metabolic reactions give off heat.

Active cells require more O2 therefore the heat from metabolism causes O2 to be __________ from the Hb.

  • increase
  • released
103

DPG means ___________________, this is a molecule found in _______ ___________ cells, and is found during Glycolysis (intermedial process).

DPG helps to _______ O2 from Hb in ______ O2 conditions.

  • 2-3 Diphospho-Glycerate
  • Release
  • Low
104

Carbo Dioxide process

1 Our bodies produce CO2, which must be carried to the _____________, through the _______

Lungs

Blood

105

Step 2 - Carbon Dioxide enters into the ____________ blood

Approximately ________ ml CO2/100 ml of this blood.

___% is dissolved in the Plasma.

____% is combined with the ________ of Hb producing_____

  • Deoxygenated
  • 4ml
  • 7%
  • 23%
  • Globin
  • CarbaminoHb
106

When pCO2 in tissue is high, then carbaminoHb is ___________ to bind CO2.

When pCO2 in pulmonary capillaries is LOW, CO2 ___________ from CarbaminoHb to diffuse into the lungs.

  • Readily formed
  • splits
107

_____% of CO2 is transported in Plasma as HCO3- known as _____________

  • 70%
  • Bicarbonate ions
108

When pCO2 = 40 mmHg in lungs

Normal breathing and pH

109

When pCO2 <40mmHg then

Hyperventilation (Alkalosis)

110

When pCO2 > 40 mmHg then

Hypoventilation (Acidosis)

111

Step 1 - To achieve the Chloride Shift, CO2 _______ into the tissue capillaries and enters the _____________ and react with _____________ in the presence of carbonic _________ to form ______________.

  • Diffuses
  • RBCs
  • H2O
  • Anhydrase
  • Carbonic Acid
112

Step 2 - Carbonic Acid (H2CO3) dissociates into __________________________

  • H+
  • HCO3-
113

Step 3 - H+ begins to bind to ______________

Hemoglobin (Hg)

114

Step 4 - As the amount of HCO3 ions increase, some of the HCO3 ions begin to _________ ______ of the RBCs and into the Plasma.

Diffuse Out

115

Step 5 - In exchange, _________ ions diffuse from the ________ into the RBCs.

  • Cl- Ions
  • Plasma
116

Step 6 - This exchange of a Cl- ion from the _________ for a _________ ion from the cytoplasm of the RBC is called Chloride shift.

  • Plasma
  • HCO3-
117

CONTROL RESPIRATION

The Respiratory Center is located in

  • The Medulla
  • Pons
118

Located in the Medulla, this area is under autonomic control and functions to maintain a normal rate of respiration.

Medullary Rhythmicity Center (Pontine Respiratory Center)

119

Step 1 - Impulses from the ___________ ___________ stimulate the diaphragm and the _________ _________, and muscle _______________.

  • Inspiratory neurons
  • External Intercostal
  • to contract
120

Step 2 - As they contract, the _________ cavity increases in _________.

Inspiration ____________.

  • Thoracic
  • volume
  • begins
121

Step 3 - After 2-3 seconds, the impulses _______ and __________ expiration occurs due to the muscles ________ and the elastic recoil of the thoracic cavity.

  • Stop
  • Passive
  • relaxing
122

Step 4 - Impulses from the expiratory _________ result in the contraction of the _________ intercostal muscles that ___________ the size of the thoracic cavity due to forced expiration.

  • Neurons
  • internal
  • decrease
123

This area is located at the PONS, and continuously transmits inhibitory impulses to the inspiratory area. The effect is to stop inspiration before the lungs become too full.

Neuromotaxic Area

124

This area sends stimulatory impulses to the inspiratory area that activate it and prolong inspiration and inhibit expiration.

Apneusin Area

125

Chemical Regulation

When certain chemicals regulate respiration

126

This area is located in the medulla, it is highly sensitive to blood CO2 concentrations.

Chemoreceptive Area

127

This receptors are located in the carotid and aortic sinuses and area highly sensitive to O2 and CO2 blood concentrations. The receptors tell the respiratory center to increase or decrease the expiration rate according to pO2 or pCO2

Chemoreceptors

128

Hypercapnea is also known as __________________when ___________ is too high, above 40 mmHg.

Chemoreceptors ___________ respiration rate until CO2 level is at or below 40 mmHg.

  • Hypoventilation
  • CO2
  • increase
129

Hyperventilation occur when pCO2 is too _______, below 40mmHg.

Chemoreceptors are not stimulated and do not send any impulse to inspiratory area and respiration slows until pCO2 reaches 40 mmHg

LOW

130

Hypoventilation is a ______ rate of respiration, and pCO2 builds ____ in blood

  • Slow
  • up
131

O2 receptors

????

132

Other Influences

???