Studies the overall exchange of gases in
Breathing, which is the inflow and outflow of air between the atmosphere and lungs
The exchange of gases between the Lungs and Blood
The exchange of gases between Blood and cells
The respiratory system is divided by structures, which are
- Bronchopulmonary Segments
The Nose is divided in 3 main structures
- External Structure
- Internal Structure
- Nasal Cavity
External Structure includes
- External nares (nostrils),
- hyaline cartilage,
- Nasal bones
Internal Structure includes
- Internal nares,
- nasal cavity
- nasal septum
- nasal conchae
Nasal Septum includes
- Perpendicular Plate of Ethmoid Bone
- Vomer Bone
- Superior, Medial and Inferior Nasal Conchae
The function of the Nasal Cavity is
- Warm and filter the air
- receive smell sensation
- Hollow chambers for speech sounds.
The pharynx is also known as the
Pharynx is divided in three areas
It is considered the "Voice Box"
- Comprised of cartilage,
- Contains the vocal folds
The 4 main sections or areas of Larynx are ...
- Thyroid Cartilage (Adam's apple)
- Cricoid Cartilage
Epiglotis covers the _____________, which is the opening to the ______________ tract
Epiglotis is made of _______________ covered with___________.
Epiglotis tips _________ during swallowing when the larynx moves _________, air can enter the Respiratory System
- elastic cartilage
- inferiorly or down
- superiorly or up
2/3rd down or Larynx is made of
ciliated columnar elastic cartilage
Remember the cilia in the nasal cavity pushes ________ toward the pharynx; while the cilia in the larynx pushes __________ to get stuff into the pharynx to then go in the stomach.
This is known as the "wind-pipe"
These cartilage rings made of ___________ prevent collapse Trachea, so that you don’t have to re-inflate this tube on top of having to take a breath, so you’re always able to breathe easily.
Trachea's structure consists of
- Tracheal Ring
- Trachealis muscle
- Lining of Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
- Smooth muscle
Trachea rings are not a full circle, it’s like a ___________ or horse-shoe shape.
In the posterior part where it’s incomplete we’re going to find the ____________ muscle, which is a ______ muscle. It gives the ___-shape form instead of the C-shape
When you cough or sneeze this muscle contracts rapidly to really accelerate that air to 100mph, to try to get whatever is bothering you, out of your body.
- Trachealis muscle
- Smooth Muscle
So coughing and sneezing is really a _____________ mechanism.
____________ muscle allows trachea to expand when swallowing
Lining inside the trachea, there is a ______________________________ where the cilia sweep ____wards.
- pseudostratified ciliated epithelium
Below the pseudostratified ciliated epithelium there is a ____________ and _____________ section where submucosa glands are secreting to keep humid the internal trachea walls.
At the _____________ of the trachea (the very bottom of the trachea, where the trachea splits into _________ bronchus).
Carina is made of __________, however the % of cartilage ________________ as you go deeper into the respiratory tract, and the % of __________ muscle __________
the mucosa is extra sensitive to irritants and often triggers the ___________ reflex.
The composition of the tissue is going to change as we go from big tubes to smaller and smaller branches.
First we start with _____________ rings, then they don’t go so far around and they’re called cartilage __________ then there’s not gonna be anymore cartilage.
As for the cell type, we start off with…
- Ciliated pseudo-stratified columnar on the top then
- Ciliated simple columnar,
- Ciliated simple cuboidal,
- Simple cuboidal (no more cilia nor mucous-producing goblet cells) - Terminal bronchioles
The trachialis smooth muscle changes from only a posterior location to an encircling location and thins out at the terminal bronchioles. Smooth muscle is controlled by the ____________________________: so of course a nerve from the parasympathetic and sympathetic system is going to innervate it to create a different effect.
- autonomic nervous system
When you’re gearing up for fight or flight (sympathetic shit) what are you going to need in terms of oxygen? LOTS OF IT. So the airways widen. The adrenal medulla releases ________________ and ______________ which are smooth muscle relaxants. So the smaller branches are going to widen.
- epinephrine and norepinephrine
Under the parasympathetic stimulation, the _________ is released which constricts the airways in case you don’t need so much air (rest and digest).
Smoking inhibit and ultimately destroys _________. Without this expelling activity, coughing is the only way to prevent __________ from accumulating in the lungs.
For this reason. smokers should avoid medication that _________ the cough reflex.
Inflamation of the vocal folds or ______________ causes the vocal folds to __________, interfering with their vibrations.
The right Bronchus is ________, __________, wider, shorter and more vertical than the left, and is called_____________
- Wider, shorter
- Primari Right Bronchi
What is the benefit of these characteristics in the Right Bronchus
When inhaled, things falls into the right side because it is more vertical and short.
The left bronchi is laying more horizontal so things are less able to go in there.
And so both sides won't be blocked
Secondary bronchi divides into as many branches as there are ____________ of the lungs.
Right side has _____________
Left side has _____________
______________ bronchi divides into smaller branches off the _______________ bronchi
This structure no longer has cartilage, and is smaller than ________ mm in diameter. Also known as __________
- 1 mm
- Little Bronchi
The tissue found in bronchioles is _____________
What the body uses to remove debris found at or below the level of te bronchioles
Macrophages from the alvioli
An allergic reaction which causes constriction of the bronchioles is called _________________.
_______________ is used to relax the smooth muscle and open the airway.
It feeds many lobules and is called
A collection of alveoli is called ___________. It contains many alveoli, arterioles, venuoles, lymphatic vessels, and a terminal bronchiole.
The Terminal Bronchiole lead to ___________ which terminate with the ___________.
- alveolar ducts
- ___________ a sac made up of simple squamous epithelium.
- Comprised of:
- Simple Squamous Epitheilum
- Alveolar Macrophage
- Septal Cells or Type II alveolar cells
The _________ cells are also known as ____________, and produce "surfactant cell.
Surfactant Cell is a fluid which _________ surface tension in the alveolus thereby preventing their collapsing.
- Septal Cells
- Type II Cells
Alveolus' main function is...
- Gas exchange occurs across the alveoli
A problem premmies have because the septal cells are not mature enough to produce Surfactant, is called
Respiratory Distress of the Newborn.
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide can diffuse through the
Alveolar-Capillary Membrane consists of:
- Simple Squamous ephitelium cells and alveolar macrophages
- Epithelial basement membrane
- Capillary basement membrane
- endothelial cells of the capillary
- Lungs are ______.
- The Right __________ has ___ ______.
- The Left __________ has ___ ______.
- Lobe , 3 lobes
- Lobe , 2 lobes
The invagination in the lungs called the ___________ or __________ is where the primary bronchi and pulmonary arteries ________ the lungs, and the pulmonary veins ______ the lungs.
- Hilum or Hilum
The Left Lung is shaped to keep an space for the heart, this area is called:
A serous membrane sac surrounds each lung called______________________.
This serous membrane reflects back over the surface of each lung and is called the _______________________.
- Parietal Pleura
- Visceral Pleura
The exchange of gases (O2 and CO2) with the cells of the body is called
The exchange of gas between the atmosphere and the lungs is called
Boyle's Law says ____________________________
"At constant temperature, the pressure ofa gas varies inversely with ints volume"
A decrease in the intra-thoracic pressure is known as _______________, causes an ____________ in the size of the thorax.
So, when air moves into the lungs, _________ Process causes de diaphragm to contract; therefore pressure ______, and volume __________.
- Inspiration (inhale)
A Increase in the intra-thoracic pressure is known as _______________, causes an ____________ in the size of the thorax.
So, when air LEAVES the lungs, _________ Process causes de diaphragm to Relax; therefore pressure ______, and volume __________.
- Expiration (exhale)
The action of a regular normal quiet breathing is called
A collapse of lungs caused by :
- foreign object
- pulmonary deseas
- Derrame pulmonar
The ease with the lungs and thoracic cavity expand and contract is called________________
It depends on:
1) Elasticity of lungs (elastic fibers)
2) Surface Tension (lowered by surfactant)
The apparatus used to determine the lung volume is called_______________.
It could be _________ or _________ ___________
Spirometer measures the air that you breath ________
Cells in Alveoli are :
- Type I Call / is the line of squamous epithelia forming the Alveolar-Capillary Membrane
- Type II Cell / Also known as Septal Cells ————————> produce Surfactant Cells
- Surfactant Cells —————> this fluid reduces surface tension, in the alveolus; preventing their collapsing.
The volume of air breathed in and out during normal quiet breathing (eupnea) is called:_______________
It is about ______ml
- Tidal Volume (TV)
- 500 ml
The volume of air one can inhale above the tidal volume is called _____________________
It is about ________ ml
- Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
- 3100 ml
The volume of air one can exhale, after normal exhalation (TV) is called :_______________
It is about ___________ ml
- Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
- 1,200 ml
- The amount of air which remains in the lungs after a maximal exhalation is called: ______________________, It is about _______ ml
- ATTENTION: This is due to the ________ fluid, not allowing the alveoli to collapse.
- Residual Volume (RV)
- 1200 ml
- surfactant fluid
The sum of the TV+IRV+ERV =____________
Vital Capacity (VC)
This lung volume measure includes TV+ERV+IRV+RV=__________________
- Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
Respiration Rate is...
The number of respiration done in one minute
TV * Respiration Rate =
Dalton's Law states that each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own ___________ as if all other gases were not present.
This pressure is called _________________. The total presure of the mixture of gases is calculated by adding up all the _________________.
- Partial Pressure
- Partial Pressures
Atmospheric pressure = ________ mmHg
Atmospheric pressure (760mmHg) =_______________
External respiration is the exchange of gases between the Lungs and _________. It means the exchange of CO2 and O2 between the ___________ of lungs and the blood of the pulmonary _____________.
INTERNAL Respiration is the exchange of gases between the Blood and _________. It means the exchange of CO2 and O2 between the ___________ and __________ cells.
We have to recall that Alveolus, millions of Air ______, made up of _____________ _____________ epithelium, which is surrounded by a thick ________-________ ________, of about ______ mm. Their surface area is about ______ sq.feet
- Simple Squamous Epithelium
- Alveolar-Capillary Membrane
- .005 mm thick
- 750 sq. feet
This is called __________ of __________, which occur because Oxygen is transported around the body by ____________ (Hb) in _____ blood cells (RBCs).
- Transport of Gases
As Oxygen does ______ easily dissolve in water.
___ % of oxygen is dissolved in plasma. For example:
100 ml of Oxygenated Blood contains ____ ml of dissolved oxygen in the plasma.
_____% of oxygen is carried by Hemoglobin as HbO2
- 20 ml
Hb is able to bind to 4 oxygen molecules at a time forming ______________
Hb+O2 <--->HbO2 is...
When Oxyhemoglobin (which acronym is _____) reaches the tissue, it releases its ______________, and becomes _________ again
The partial pressure of O2 is expressed ______.
This partial pressure determines how much _____ combines with Hb.
A mixture is fully saturated when we just find:
A mixture is partially saturated when we find:
HbO2 + Hb
The % of HbO2 in the blood is called
It affects the respiration rate when H+ is involved affecting the _________ balance turning blood acid or alkaline.
When H+ make the Blood more acid, causes HbO2 to ___________ and __________ oxygen
Bohr Effects mentions, when H+ ions bind to Hb. Hb ______ its ______ carrying capacity
The more CO2 in a liquid the ____________ the acidity of the liquid
When ________ makes H+ ions create an acid environment, Hb realeses O2, CO2 levels too high, it provokes _____________.
The symptoms are breathing too slow or holding breath)
When ________ has made blood lose too much CO2, it provokes ________________
Heat and cold affects also the Transport of gases. This is known as
When an ______________ in temperature causes O2 to be released by Hb, metabolic reactions give off heat.
Active cells require more O2 therefore the heat from metabolism causes O2 to be __________ from the Hb.
DPG means ___________________, this is a molecule found in _______ ___________ cells, and is found during Glycolysis (intermedial process).
DPG helps to _______ O2 from Hb in ______ O2 conditions.
- 2-3 Diphospho-Glycerate
Carbo Dioxide process
1 Our bodies produce CO2, which must be carried to the _____________, through the _______
Step 2 - Carbon Dioxide enters into the ____________ blood
Approximately ________ ml CO2/100 ml of this blood.
___% is dissolved in the Plasma.
____% is combined with the ________ of Hb producing_____
When pCO2 in tissue is high, then carbaminoHb is ___________ to bind CO2.
When pCO2 in pulmonary capillaries is LOW, CO2 ___________ from CarbaminoHb to diffuse into the lungs.
- Readily formed
_____% of CO2 is transported in Plasma as HCO3- known as _____________
- Bicarbonate ions
When pCO2 = 40 mmHg in lungs
Normal breathing and pH
When pCO2 <40mmHg then
When pCO2 > 40 mmHg then
Step 1 - To achieve the Chloride Shift, CO2 _______ into the tissue capillaries and enters the _____________ and react with _____________ in the presence of carbonic _________ to form ______________.
- Carbonic Acid
Step 2 - Carbonic Acid (H2CO3) dissociates into __________________________
Step 3 - H+ begins to bind to ______________
Step 4 - As the amount of HCO3 ions increase, some of the HCO3 ions begin to _________ ______ of the RBCs and into the Plasma.
Step 5 - In exchange, _________ ions diffuse from the ________ into the RBCs.
- Cl- Ions
Step 6 - This exchange of a Cl- ion from the _________ for a _________ ion from the cytoplasm of the RBC is called Chloride shift.
The Respiratory Center is located in
- The Medulla
Located in the Medulla, this area is under autonomic control and functions to maintain a normal rate of respiration.
Medullary Rhythmicity Center (Pontine Respiratory Center)
Step 1 - Impulses from the ___________ ___________ stimulate the diaphragm and the _________ _________, and muscle _______________.
- Inspiratory neurons
- External Intercostal
- to contract
Step 2 - As they contract, the _________ cavity increases in _________.
Step 3 - After 2-3 seconds, the impulses _______ and __________ expiration occurs due to the muscles ________ and the elastic recoil of the thoracic cavity.
Step 4 - Impulses from the expiratory _________ result in the contraction of the _________ intercostal muscles that ___________ the size of the thoracic cavity due to forced expiration.
This area is located at the PONS, and continuously transmits inhibitory impulses to the inspiratory area. The effect is to stop inspiration before the lungs become too full.
This area sends stimulatory impulses to the inspiratory area that activate it and prolong inspiration and inhibit expiration.
When certain chemicals regulate respiration
This area is located in the medulla, it is highly sensitive to blood CO2 concentrations.
This receptors are located in the carotid and aortic sinuses and area highly sensitive to O2 and CO2 blood concentrations. The receptors tell the respiratory center to increase or decrease the expiration rate according to pO2 or pCO2
Hypercapnea is also known as __________________when ___________ is too high, above 40 mmHg.
Chemoreceptors ___________ respiration rate until CO2 level is at or below 40 mmHg.
Hyperventilation occur when pCO2 is too _______, below 40mmHg.
Chemoreceptors are not stimulated and do not send any impulse to inspiratory area and respiration slows until pCO2 reaches 40 mmHg
Hypoventilation is a ______ rate of respiration, and pCO2 builds ____ in blood