Human Anatomy & Physiology: Pregnancy and Human Development Flashcards


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1

Leads to the development of a morula and then a blastocyst.

A) Capacitation

B) Fertilization

C) Implantation

D) Gastrulation

E) Cleavage

E) Cleavage

2

Embedding of the blastocyst in the uterine wall.

A) Capacitation

B) Fertilization

C) Implantation

D) Gastrulation

E) Cleavage

C) Implantation

3

Leads to the formation of the first cell of the new individual.

A) Capacitation

B) Fertilization

C) Implantation

D) Gastrulation

E) Cleavage

B) Fertilization

4

Leads to the establishment of the three primary germ layers.

A) Capacitation

B) Fertilization

C) Implantation

D) Gastrulation

E) Cleavage

D) Gastrulation

5

Leads to enhancement of sperm motility and increasing membrane fragility to enable enzyme release from acrosomes.

A) Capacitation

B) Fertilization

C) Implantation

D) Gastrulation

E) Cleavage

A) Capacitation

6

It is impossible for sperm to be functional (able to fertilize the egg) until after_____.

A) the tail disappears

B) they become spermatids

C) they undergo capacitation

D) they have been stored in the uterus for several days

C) they undergo capacitation

7

Milk ejection or letdown reflex is stimulated by which of the following hormones associated with pregnancy?

A) inhibin

B) oxytocin

C) prolactin

D) gonadotropin

B) oxytocin

8

The placenta, a vitally important metabolic organ, is made up of a contribution from mother and fetus. Which portion is from the fetus?

A) chorion

B) umbilicus

C) yolk sac

D) amnion

A) chorion

9

Relaxin is a hormone produced by the placenta and ovaries. The function of the hormone is to..

A) block the pain of childbirth

B) ensure the implantation of the blastula

C) relax the pubic symphysis

D) prevent morning sickness

C) relax the pubic symphysis

10

Which of the following is the most important event in the success of a pregnancy?

A) embry transfer

B) implantation

C) fertilization

D) gamete intrafallopian transfer

B) implantation

11

Which of the following is not a germ layer?

A) ectoderm

B) mesoderm

C) epiderm

D) endoderm

C) epiderm

12

The correct sequence of embryonic structures is__________.

A) zygote, blastocyst, morula

B) zygote, morula, blastocyst

C) blastocyst, morula, zygote

D) morula, zygote, blastocyst

B) zygote, morula, blastocyst

13

Select the correct statement about fertilization.

A) Both spermatozoa and the ovulated secondary oocyte remain viable for about 72 hours in the female reproductive tract.

B) Millions of sperm cells are destroyed by the vagina's acidic environment.

C) If estrogen is present, the pathway through the cervical opening is blocked from sperm entry

D) Once inside the uterus, most sperm cells are protected and remain viable.

B) Millions of sperm cells are destroyed by the vagina's acidic environment.

14

Muscle tissue is formed by the____.

A) mesoderm

B) ectoderm

C) endoderm

D) epiderm

A) mesoderm

15

Neural tissue is formed by the_____

A) epiderm

B) endoderm

C) mesoderm

D) ectoderm

D) ectoderm

16

At which stage of labor is the "afterbirth" expelled?

A) dystocia

B) expulsion

C) placental

D) full dilation

C) placental

17

Which hormone is not produced by the placenta?

A) human placental lactogen

B) human chorionic thyrotropin

C) relaxin

D) estrogen

D) Estrogen

18

During which stage of labor is the fetus delivered?

A) dilation stage

B) expulsion stage

C) placental stage

D) gastrula stage

B) expulsion stage

19

Cleavage as part of embryonic development is distinctive because it involves_____.

A) cell division with little or no growth between successive divisions

B) the fusion of gametes

C) splitting the cell into two separate cells

D) meiosis

A) cell division with little or no growth between successive divisions

20

Which of the following is true in reference to what may pass through the placental barriers?

A) nutrients and respiratory gases only

B) hormones, blood cells, and nutrients

C) nutrients, respiratory gases, wastes, and alcohol

D) respiratory gases, hormones, nutrients, and blood cells

C) nutrients, respiratory gases, wastes, and alcohol

21

Which of the following statements about the events of fertilization is not true?

A) the two pronuclei divide

B) The head of the sperm forms the male pronucleus.

C) The secondary oocyte completes the second meiotic division.

D) Enzymes of the sperm acrosome penetrate the cells of the corona radiata of the oocyte.

A) The two pronuclei divide

22

The conceptus is called a fetus at the ___ week.

A) 5th

B) 9th

C) 13th

D) 17th

B) 9th

23

How many stages are there in parturition?

A) 4

B) 6

C) 3

D) 1

C) 3

24

In which month of gestation is the embryonic period ended?

A) 3rd

B) 7th

C) 2nd

D) 5th

C) 2nd

25

Which of the following give rise to the respiratory system?

A) mesoderm

B) ectoderm

C) endoderm

D) none of the above

C) endoderm