Chapter 14

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1

Pathology

The study of disease

2

Etiology

Study of the cause of disease

3

Pathogenesis

Development of disease

4

Infection

Colonization of the body by pathogens

5

Disease

An abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally

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Normal Flora

Microorganisms that inhibit but do not cause disease in or on an organism under normal conditions.

7

Transient Microbiota

May be present for days, weeks or months

8

Commensalism

one organism is benefited and the other is unaffected.

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Mutualism

both organisms benefit

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Parasitism

One organism is benefited at the expense of the other

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Some normal microbiota are...

are opportunistic pathogens and can produce disease.

12

Koch's postulates:

1. same microorganism (pathogen) must be present in every case of the disease.

2. must isolate the microorganisms from the diseased host and grow in pure culture.

3. The microorganism from the pure culture must produce the disease when inoculated into a susceptible host.

4. The microorganism must be recovered from the inoculated animal again in pure culture.

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What did Koch's prove?

they proved certain organisms cause certain diseases.

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Exceptions to Koch's postulates:

- Unique culture requirements

- Some diseases can cause several disease conditions

- Ethical consideration

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Symptom

Change in body function that is felt by the patient as a result of disease.

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Sign

Change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease.

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Syndrome

Specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease.

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Communicable disease

is spread from one host to another

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Contagious disease

is easily spread from one host to another

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Noncommunicable disease:

This is transmitted from one host to another.

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Incidence

fraction of a population that contracts a disease during a specific time

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Prevalence

Fraction of a population having a specific disease at a given time.

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Sporadic disease

disease that occurs occasionally in population

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Endemic disease

Disease constantly presented in a population

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Epidemic disease

disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time.

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Pandemic disease

Worldwide epidemic

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Predisposing Factors:

-Climate and weather

- Chemotherapy

- Inherited traits such as the sickle- cell gene

- Fatigue

-Age

-Lifestyle

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Incubation period:

Microorganism is present, but host is not showing any sign of the disease

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Prodromal Period:

short period of mild symptoms

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Period of illness:

actual disease process

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Period of decline:

sign and symptoms subside.

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Period of Covalence:

person regains strength and body returns to the pre-

diseased state.

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Local infection:

Pathogens limited to a small area of the body

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Systemic infection:

An infection throughout the body.

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Focal infection:

System infection that began as an infection.

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Bacteremia:

bacteria in the blood

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Septicemia:

growth of bacteria in the blood

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Toxemia:

toxins in the blood

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Viremia:

viruses in the blood

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Primary infection:

Acute infection that causes the initial illness.

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Secondary Infection:

opportunistic infection after a primary (predisposing) infection.

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Subclinical:

no noticeable signs of symptoms (not apparent infection)

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Transmission of Disease:

- Contact

-Vehicle

-Vectors

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Contact (Transmission of disease)

-Direct: requires close association between infected and susceptible host

-Indirect: Spread by fomites

-Droplet: Transmission via airborne droplets

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Vehicle (Transmission of disease)

Transmission by an inanimate reservoir (food, water, air)

46

Vectors (Transmission of disease)

-Arthropods: especially fleas, ticks and mosquitoes

-Mechanical: Arthropod carries pathogen on feet

-Biological: pathogen reproduces in vector

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Nosocomial Infections:

Are acquired as a result of a hospital stay

- 5-15% of all hospital patients acquire nosocomial infections

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What are several factors of Nosocomial Infections?

-Microorganisms in the hospital environment

-The compromised status of the host

- The chain transmission in the hospital

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Control of Nosocomial Infections:

-Control is difficult

- Cleanliness

-Handwashing

- Disinfection

-Filters

50

Epidemiology:

The study of where and when diseases occur and how they are transmitted

-detective like work

-Collection of data

-Study case reports

51

Morbidity:

incidence of a specific notifiable disease

52

Mortality:

deaths from notifiable diseases