Activity 2: Examining the Formed Elements of Blood Microscoically

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1

Erythrocytes/red blood cells average what measurement in diameter?

7.5 um

2

Erythrocytes/red blood cells can vary in color from what to what?

Orange-pink to pale pink

3

The color of erythrocytes/red blood cells under the microscope depends on what quality?

The effectiveness of the stain

4

What is the distinctive shape of erythrocytes/red blood cells?

Biconcave disk chape

5

How does the color of erythrocytes/red blood cells compare in the center to the edge?

The center is paler than at the edge

6

What are the most numerous blood cells seen under a microscope?

Red blood cells

7

What is the average number of red blood cells per cubic millimeter of blood (for men and women)?

4-6 million cells/mm cubed

8

What is the function of red blood cells/erythrocytes?

Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide

9

How do red blood cells differ from the other blood cells in 2 ways?

1. They are anucleate when mature

2. They circulate in the blood

10

What is the 2 consequences of red blood cells lacking a nucleus?

1. Unable to reproduce

2. Unable to repair damage

11

What is the life span of red blood cells?

100-120 days

12

Where are red blood cells destroyed after living out their life span?

The spleen

13

1. In various anemias, why may red blood cells appear pale?

2. In various anemias, why may red blood cells be nucleated?

1. Decreased hemoglobin content

2. Bone marrow is turning out RBCs that are premature

14

Leukocytes are also commonly known as what?

White blood cells

15

How are mature white blood cells different from mature red blood cells, and how are they similar (Hint: nucleus and formation location)?

Different: Mature white blood cells are nucleated compared to mature red blood cells

Similar: Mature white blood cells and red blood cells are both formed in the bone marrow

16

White blood cells and red blood cells are both formed in the bone marrow from what type of blood stem cells?

Hematopoietic stem cells

17

What are 2 general physical characteristics of leukocytes?

1. Spherical

2. Nucleated

18

What is the average of leukocytes/white blood cells per cubic millimeter?

4800-10,800 per mm cubed

19

What is the lifespan of leukocytes/white blood cells.

Vary from minutes to decades

20

Why does the lifespan of leukocytes/white blood cells vary from minutes to decades (Hint: 2 reasons)?

1. They vary based on their type

2. They vary based on their tissue activity

21

Basically, describe the general 2 functions of leukocytes/white blood cells.

1. Protection

2. Pathogen-destroying

22

Where are leukocytes/white blood cells transported to in the body?

To all parts of the body

23

Leukocytes/white blood cells are transported to all parts of the body in what 2 substances?

1. Blood

2. Lymph

24

What are 2 unique movement traits of leukocytes/white blood cells?

1. Diapedesis

2. Amoeboid motion

25

What is diapedesis?

Ability to move in and out of blood vessels

26

Amoeboid motion allow leukocytes/white blood cells to do what?

Wander through body tissues to reach sites of inflammation or tissue destruction

27

Leukocytes/white blood cells are classified into how many groups?

Into 2 major groups

28

What is the basis for separating leukocytes/white blood cells into 2 groups?

Whether or not they contain granules in their cytoplasm

29

What are the 2 groups of leukocytes/white blood cells?

1. Granulocytes

2. Agranulocytes

30

The granules in granulocytes stain differently with what stain?

Wright's stain

31

Describe the typical nuclei shape of granulocytes.

Lobed nuclei

32

The lobed nuclei of granulocytes are connected by thin strands of what?

Nucleoplasm

33

How many granulocytes are there?

3

34

What are the 3 types of granulocytes?

1. Neutrophils

2. Eosinophils

3. Basophils

35

Describe the lobe shape of neutrophil nuclei.

Multi-lobed

36

The granules of neutrophil stain what 2 colors?

1. Red

2. Blue

37

What is the diameter of a neutrophil?

10-12 um

38

What is the function of neutrophils?

Phagocytize pathogens or debris

39

Describe the lobe shape of eosinophil nuclei.

Bilobed

40

How do the granules in eosinophils stain?

Red

41

What are the 3 functions of eosinophils?

1. Kill parasitic worms

2. Slightly phagocytic

3. Play a role in allerginic and asthma reactions

42

What is the diameter of an eosinophil?

10-14 um

43

Describe the lobe shape of the basophil nucleus.

Nucleus is just lobed

44

How do the granules in basophils stain?

blue

45

What are the 2 functions of basophils (Hint: what it releases)?

1. Release histamine and other inflammation mediators

2. Contain heparin, an anticoagulant

46

Minus granulocytes, what is the second group of leukocytes/white blood cells?

Agranulocytes

47

Differentiate agranulocytes from granulocytes.

Agranulocytes contain no visible cytoplasmic granules

48

Where can agranulocytes be found, but where are they most abundant?

Can be found in the bloodstream but much more abundant in lymphoid tissues.

49

How many types of agranulocytes are there?

2

50

What are the 2 types of agranulocytes?

1. Lymphocytes

2. Monocytes

51

What is the nucleus shape for lymphocytes? (Hint: 2 shapes)

1. Spherical

2. Indented

52

What is the cytoplasm color stain for lymphocytes?

Blue

53

What is the diameter of lymphocytes?

5-17 um

54

What is the function of lymphocytes?

Mount immune response

55

The immune response created by lymphocytes is through what 2 ways?

1. Direct cell attack

2. Antibody production

56

Describe the nucleus shape of monocytes? (Hint: 2 possibilities)

1. U-shaped

2. Kidney-shaped

57

The cytoplasm of monocytes stain what range of color?

Gray-blue

58

What is the diameter of monocytes?

14-24 um

59

What are the 2 functions of monocytes?

1. Develop into macrophages in tissues

2. Phagocytize pathogens or debris

60

List the leukocytes/white blood cells in order from the most abundant to the least abundant.

1. Neutrophils

2. Lymphocytes

3. Monocytes

4. Eosinophils

5. Basophils

61

Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas

Use this mnemonic to help you order the leukocytes/white blood cells from most abundant to least abundant.

1. Neutrophils

2. Lymphocytes

3. Monocytes

4. Eosinophils

5. Basophils

62

Yes/No. Do platelets contain granules?

Yes

63

What color do platelets stain?

Deep purple

64

What is the diameter of platelets?

2-4 um

65

What are the 2 functions of platelets?

1. Seal small tears in blood vessels

2. Blood clotting

66

Platelets are cell fragments of what?

Cell fragments of megakaryocytes

67

What are megakaryocytes and where are they formed?

They are large multinucleate cells formed in the bone marrow

68

What is the normal platelet range count in blood per cubic millimeter?

150,000-400,000 mm cubed

69

Platelets are instrumental in what process?

Clotting process

70

When is the clotting process activated?

When blood vessels are ruptured

71
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What is the cell shown in purple?

Lymphocyte

72
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What is the cell shown in purple?

Monocyte

73
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What are the cells shown in purple?

Neutrophils

74
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What are the cells shown in purple?

Platelets

75
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Name the 2 cells.

Left: Platelet cell

Right: Red blood cell

76
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Name the 3 cells.

Left: Neutrophil

Middle: Eosinophil

Right: Basophil

77
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Name the 3 cells.

Left: B/T Lymphocyte

Middle: B/T Lymphocyte

Right: Monocyte

78
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Name the missing cells.

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79
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Name the cell.

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80
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Name the cell.

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81
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Name the cell.

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82
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Name the cell.

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83
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Name the cell.

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