Activity 1: Composition of Blood and Determining the Physical Characteristics of Plasma

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1

Describe the consistency of circulating blood?

Viscous

2

The color of blood is predicated on the availability of what?

Oyxgen

3

Oxygen-rich blood is what color?

Bright red

4

Oxygen-poor blood is what color?

Dull brick-red or blackish-red

5

The average volume of blood in the body is about how much (in liters) in males and females?

Males: 5-6 liters

Females: 4-5 liters

6

Blood is classified as what type of tissue?

Connective tissue

7

Why is blood considered connective tissue?

Consists of a nonliving fluid matrix in which living cells and cell fragments are suspended

8

What is the nonliving fluid matrix in the blood?

Plasma

9

The living cells and cell fragments make up what in the blood?

Formed elements

10

The fibers typical of a connective tissue matrix become visible in blood when?

When clotting occurs

11

When the fibers typical of a connective tissue matrix become visible in blood, they appear as what?

Fibrin threads

12

Fibrin threads form the structural basis of what?

Clotting

13

Plasma is composed of over 90% of what?

Water

14

How many different substances are dissolved in plasma?

Over 100 substances

15

What are 8 substances that may be found in plasma?

1. Nutrients

2. Gases

3. Hormones

4. Wastes

5. Metabolites

6. Proteins

7. Electrolytes

8. Water

16

What are the 2 functions of water that is found in plasma?

1. Solvent for carrying other substances

2. Absorbs heat

17

What are the 2 functions of electrolytes that are found in plasma?

1. Osmotic balance

2. pH buffering

18

What are 6 examples of electrolytes that may be found in plasma?

1. Sodium

2. Potassium

3. Calcium

4. Magnesium

5. Chloride

6. Bicarbonate

19

What are the 4 functions of proteins found in plasma?

1. Osmotic balance

2. Clotting of blood

3. Defense (antibodies)

4. Lipid transport

20

What are the 3 plasma proteins?

1. Albumin

2. Fibrinogen

3. Globulins

21

What 4 nutrients may be found in plasma?

1. Glucose

2. Fatty acids

3. Amino acids

4. Vitamins

22

What are 2 waste products found in plasma?

1. Urea

2. Uric acid

23

What are 2 respiratory gases found in plasma?

1. Oxygen

2. Carbon dioxide

24

The composition of plasma varies how?

Continuously

25

How does the composition of plasma vary continuously?

As cells remove or add substances to the blood

26

How many types of formed elements are present in blood?

3

27

What are the 3 types of formed elements?

1. Erythrocytes

2. Leukocytes

3. Platelets

28

What is the number per cubic millimeter of blood for erythrocytes or red blood cells?

4-6 million per cubic millimeter

29

What is the function of erythrocytes/red blood cells?

Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide

30

What is the number per cubic millimeter of blood for leukocytes/white blood cells?

4800-10,800

31

What is the cell count range for neutrophils per millimeter cubed of blood?

3000-7000 cells per millimeter mm cubed

32

What is the cell count range for eosinophils per milimmeter of cubed of blood?

100-400 cells per milimeter cubed

33

What is the cell count range for basophils per milimmeter cubed of blood?

20-50 cells per millimeter cubed

34

What is the cell count range for lymphocytes per millimeter cubed of blood?

1500-3000 cells per millimeter cubed

35

What is the cell count range for monocytes per millimeter cubed of blood?

100-700 cells per millimeter cubed

36

What is the cell count range for platelets per millimeter cubed of blood?

150,000-400,000 cells per millimeter cubed

37

What are the 2 functions of leukocytes/white blood cells?

1. Nonspecific defenses

2. Immunity

38

What is the number of platelets per cubic millimeter?

150,000-400,000

39

What is the general function of platelets?

Blood clotting

40

What is the most numerous formed element in blood?

Erythrocytes

41

Erythrocytes are also commonly called what?

Red blood cells

42

Erythrocytes/red blood cells act as sacs of what types of molecules?

Sacs of hemoglobin molecules

43

What is the function of hemoglobin molecules?

Transport the oxygen and a small percentage of the carbon dioxide carried in the blood

44

Leukocytes/white blood cells play what 2 roles in the human body (Hint: defenses and system)?

1. Nonspecific defenses

2. Immune system

45

Platelets function in what type of "stasis"?

Homeostasis

46

Homeostasis in regards to platelets can also be described as what?

Blood clot formation

47

Leukocytes and platelets make up what percentage of whole blood?

Less than 1%

48

Formed elements normally constitute about what percentage of whole blood?

45%

49

Plasma accounts for what percentage of whole blood?

55%

50
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