Bone tissue

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1

What are the six main functions of the skeletal system

Support, Protection, Assistance in movement, Mineral homeostasis (storage and release, Blood cell production, Triglyceride storage.

2

What is the
bone’s shaft or body—the long, cylindrical, main portion of
the bone.

diaphysis

3

What are the proximal and distal ends of the bone

epiphyses

4

What are the regions between the diaphysis and the epiphyses

metaphyses

5

What is a layer of hyaline cartilage
that allows the diaphysis of the bone to grow in length

epiphyseal
(growth) plate

6

When a bone ceases to grow in
length at about ages 18–21, the cartilage in the epiphyseal plate
is replaced by bone; the resulting bony structure is known as the

epiphyseal line

7

What is a thin layer of hyaline cartilage
covering the part of the epiphysis where the bone forms an articulation
(joint) with another bone

articular cartilage

8

Function of Articular cartilage?

reduces
friction and absorbs shock at freely movable joints.

9

What surrounds
the external bone surface wherever it is not covered by
articular cartilage

periosteum

10

What is the periosteum composed of?

outer fibrous layer, inner osteogenic layer

11

What is a hollow, cylindrical space within the
diaphysis that contains fatty yellow bone marrow in adults.

medullary cavity or marrow cavity

12

What is a thin
membrane that lines the internal bone surface facing the
medullary cavity. It contains a single layer of cells and a small
amount of connective tissue

endosteum

13

calcification is initiated by bone-building cells called

osteoblasts

14

a bone’s hardness depends on the?

crystallized
inorganic mineral salts

15

a bone’s flexibility depends on its?

collagen
fibers

16

Like reinforcing metal rods in concrete, collagen
fibers and other organic molecules provide?

tensile strength

17

What are
unspecialized stem cells derived from mesenchyme, the tissue
from which almost all connective tissues are formed

Osteogenic cells

18

Osteogenic cells are
the only bone cells to

undergo cell division

19

Osteogenic cells are found along the
inner portion of the?

periosteum, endosteum, and the
canals within bone that contain blood vessels

20

What are
bone-building cells

Osteoblasts

21

Osteoblasts synthesize and secrete collagen fibers
and other organic components needed to

build the extracellular
matrix of bone tissue, and they initiate calcification

22

What are mature bone
cells, are the main cells in bone tissue and maintain its daily
metabolism, such as the exchange of nutrients and wastes with
the blood

Osteocytes

23

What are huge cells
derived from the fusion of as many as 50 monocytes (a type of
white blood cell) and are concentrated in the endosteum

Osteoclasts

24

the osteoclast’s
plasma membrane is deeply folded into a

ruffled border

25

Osteoclasts are concentrated where?

endosteum

26

Osteoclasts releases

powerful lysosomal enzymes and acids that
digest the protein and mineral components of the underlying bone matrix

27

breakdown of bone extracellular matrix is called?

resorption

28

resorption is part of the

normal development,
maintenance, and repair of bone

29

in response to certain
hormones ______________ help regulate blood calcium level

osteoclasts

30

What type of bone tissue contains few spaces and is
the strongest form of bone tissue

Compact bone tissue

31

Compact bone tissue is found where?

beneath the periosteum
of all bones and makes up the bulk of the diaphyses of long
bones

32

Compact bone tissue provides

protection and support and
resists the stresses produced by weight and movement.

33

Blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves from the
periosteum penetrate compact bone through transverse

Volkmann’s (FOLK-mans) canals.

34

The vessels
and nerves of the perforating canals connect with those of the
medullary cavity, periosteum, and central

haversian canals

35

The components of compact bone tissue are arranged into
repeating structural units called

osteons or haversian systems

36

what kind of bone tissue does not
contain osteons?

spongy bone tissue

37

Spongy bone consists of lamellae
arranged in an irregular lattice of thin columns called

trabeculae

38

The macroscopic spaces between the trabeculae help make

bones lighter and sometimes be filled with red bone marrow

39

Spongy bone tissue makes up most of the

interior bone tissue
of short, flat, and irregularly shaped bones, and most of the
epiphyses of long bones

40

What is accompanied by nerves
enter the diaphysis through many perforating (Volkmann’s)
canals and supply the periosteum and outer part of the compact
bone

Periosteal arteries

41

What artery enters the metaphyses of a long bone and, together with the nutrient
artery, supply the red bone marrow and bone tissue of the
metaphyses.

metaphyseal arteries

42

What artery enters the
epiphyses of a long bone and supply the red bone marrow and
bone tissue of the epiphyses

epiphyseal arteries

43

The process by which bone forms is called

ossification

44

The chondroblasts
secrete cartilage extracellular matrix, producing a

cartilage model

45

The replacement of cartilage by bone is called

endochondral
ossification

46

_____________ develops
around the cartilage model

perichondrium

47

growth from within is called

interstitial growth

48

The cartilage model also
grows by the addition of more extracellular matrix material
to the periphery of the model by new chondroblasts that develop
from the perichondrium. This growth pattern is called

appositional growth

49

The epiphyseal (growth) plate (ep-i-FIZ-e--al) is a
layer of

hyaline cartilage in the metaphysis of a growing bone
that consists of four zones

50

growing bones consists of what four zones?

Zone of resting cartilage, Zone of proliferating cartilage, Zone of hypertrophic cartilage, Zone of calcified cartilage

51

layer is nearest the epiphysis
and consists of small, scattered chondrocytes

Zone of resting cartilage

52

Slightly larger chondrocytes
in this zone are arranged like stacks of coins

Zone of proliferating cartilage

53

Zone of proliferating cartilage undergoes what?

interstitial growth as they divide and secrete
extracellular matrix

54

layer
consists of large, maturing chondrocytes arranged in columns.

Zone of hypertrophic cartilage

55

The final zone of the epiphyseal
plate is only a few cells thick and consists mostly of chondrocytes
that are dead because the extracellular matrix around them
has calcified

Zone of calcified cartilage.

56

the blood plasma level of Ca2 is very
closely regulated between

9 and 11 mg/100 mL.

57

Ca2+ exchange is regulated by hormones, the most important
of which is

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

58

parathyroid hormone (PTH)increases blood ______ level

Ca2+

59

PTH also acts on the kidneys (effectors) to decrease loss of

Ca2+ in the urine

60

When
blood Ca2 rises above normal, parafollicular cells in the thyroid
gland secrete

calcitonin

61

calcitonin inhibits activity of what?

osteoclasts, speeds blood Ca2 uptake by bone, and accelerates
Ca2 deposition into bones

62

sex
hormones are responsible for increased

osteoblast activity and
synthesis of bone extracellular matrix and the sudden “growth
spurt” that occurs during the teenage years

63

what hormone promote changes in the skeleton that are typical of females, such
as widening of the pelvis

Estrogens

64

Ultimately sex hormones, especially
estrogens in both sexes do what to growth plates?

shut down growth at epiphyseal
(growth) plates, causing elongation of the bones to cease.

65

During adulthood, sex hormones contribute to what?

remodeling
by slowing resorption of old bone and promoting deposition
of new bone.

66

the hormones most important
to bone growth are the insulinlike growth factors (IGFs), which
are produced by the

liver and bone tissue

67

insulinlike growth factors (IGFs) promote what?

osteoblasts, promote cell division at the epiphyseal
plate and in the periosteum, and enhance synthesis of the proteins
needed to build new bone

68

IGFs are produced in response
to the secretion of what hormone?

human growth hormone (hGH)

69

human growth hormone (hGH) is secreted from what?

pituitary gland

70

What hormone that aids in the absorption of calcium
in foods from the gastrointestinal tract into the blood?

Calcitriol

71

PTH
stimulates formation of what hormone?

calcitriol (the active form of vitamin D)

72

What hormone that promotes absorption of calcium from foods in
the gastrointestinal tract into the blood

calcitriol