Exam three study guide
Distinguish between classical (Pavlovian) conditioning and instrumental (operant) conditioning.
Classical conditioning is learning that two things are connected, operant conditioning is teaching a learned behavior.
Understand some important facts about each that tell us how they work.
- Operant conditioning
- BF Skinner box
- Pavlovian (classical conditioning)
- Dog salivating
Understand how they work separately and together to influence human behavior in the world outside the laboratory.
Someone who is reinforced for eating excessively learns these behaviors in the presence of a kitchen or restaurant.
List the four aspects of observational learning according to Social Learning Theory.
Attention, retention, initiation, motivation
Define and note differences between the following forms of memory: working memory, episodic memory, semantic memory, collective memory.
- Working memory
- The ability to hold information in our minds for a brief time and work with it
- Episodic memory
- The ability to remember the episodes of our lives.
- Semantic memory
- Our storehouse of more-or-less permanent knowledge
- Collective memory
- The kind of memory that people in a group or community share
Describe the three stages in the process of learning and remembering
-The initial learning of information
-Maintaining information over time
-The ability to access information when you need it
Describe strategies that can be used to enhance the original learning or encoding of information
Imagery or relate them to information we know
Describe strategies that can improve the process of retrieval
Mnemonic devices, chunking
Describe the kinds of mistakes that eyewitnesses commonly make and some of the ways that this can impede justice
Mistakes of misidentifying someone whether it is their race, or the person as a whole. This causes false accusations against an individual, and unjustly puts them in jail
Explain some of the errors that are common in human memory
Tip-of-the-Tongue, and schemata-based errors
Describe some of the important research that has demonstrated human memory errors and their consequences
Mock crimes, the stop vs yield car crash discussion, etc
List at least two common strategies for measuring intelligence
An IQ test or standardized test
Name at least one type of intelligence
Define intelligence in simple terms
An individuals cognitive ability, including the ability to acquire, process, and recall information
Explain the controversy relating to differences in intelligence between groups
The possibility of natural differences is the foundation for sexism
Understand the systematic biases that affect our judgment and decision making
Anchoring - affected by an initial anchor, even if it is random, and to insufficiently adjust our judgements away from it
Framing - affected by the way in which information is presented, while holding the objective information constant.
Bounded willpower - The tendency to focus more on present rather than future concerns
Bounded self-interest - The ways in which we care about the outcomes of others
Bounded ethicality - Ways in which our ethics are limited in ways we aren't even aware of
Bounded awareness - Ways in which we fail to notice obvious and important information that is available to us
Develop strategies for making better decisions
Experience some of the biases through sample decisions
If 200 people live but 400 die, vs 400 die but 200 live example
System 1 thinking
our intuitive system, which is fast, automatic, effortless, implicit, and emotional
System 2 thinking
Logical thinking that is slower, conscious, effortful, and explicit