Exam three study guide

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The Psychology Book
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1

Distinguish between classical (Pavlovian) conditioning and instrumental (operant) conditioning.

Classical conditioning is learning that two things are connected, operant conditioning is teaching a learned behavior.

2

Understand some important facts about each that tell us how they work.

    • Operant conditioning
      • BF Skinner box
    • Pavlovian (classical conditioning)
      • Dog salivating
3

Understand how they work separately and together to influence human behavior in the world outside the laboratory.

Someone who is reinforced for eating excessively learns these behaviors in the presence of a kitchen or restaurant.

4

List the four aspects of observational learning according to Social Learning Theory.

Attention, retention, initiation, motivation

5

Define and note differences between the following forms of memory: working memory, episodic memory, semantic memory, collective memory.

    • Working memory
      • The ability to hold information in our minds for a brief time and work with it
    • Episodic memory
      • The ability to remember the episodes of our lives.
    • Semantic memory
      • Our storehouse of more-or-less permanent knowledge
    • Collective memory
      • The kind of memory that people in a group or community share
6

Describe the three stages in the process of learning and remembering

Encoding

-The initial learning of information

Storage

-Maintaining information over time

Retrieval

-The ability to access information when you need it

7

Describe strategies that can be used to enhance the original learning or encoding of information

Imagery or relate them to information we know

8

Describe strategies that can improve the process of retrieval

Mnemonic devices, chunking

9

Describe the kinds of mistakes that eyewitnesses commonly make and some of the ways that this can impede justice

Mistakes of misidentifying someone whether it is their race, or the person as a whole. This causes false accusations against an individual, and unjustly puts them in jail

10

Explain some of the errors that are common in human memory

Tip-of-the-Tongue, and schemata-based errors

11

Describe some of the important research that has demonstrated human memory errors and their consequences

Mock crimes, the stop vs yield car crash discussion, etc

12

List at least two common strategies for measuring intelligence

An IQ test or standardized test

13

Name at least one type of intelligence

Fluid intelligence

14

Define intelligence in simple terms

An individuals cognitive ability, including the ability to acquire, process, and recall information

15

Explain the controversy relating to differences in intelligence between groups

The possibility of natural differences is the foundation for sexism

16

Understand the systematic biases that affect our judgment and decision making

Overconfidence

Anchoring - affected by an initial anchor, even if it is random, and to insufficiently adjust our judgements away from it

Framing - affected by the way in which information is presented, while holding the objective information constant.

Bounded willpower - The tendency to focus more on present rather than future concerns

Bounded self-interest - The ways in which we care about the outcomes of others

Bounded ethicality - Ways in which our ethics are limited in ways we aren't even aware of

Bounded awareness - Ways in which we fail to notice obvious and important information that is available to us

17

Develop strategies for making better decisions

Heuristics

18

Experience some of the biases through sample decisions

If 200 people live but 400 die, vs 400 die but 200 live example

19

System 1 thinking

our intuitive system, which is fast, automatic, effortless, implicit, and emotional

20

System 2 thinking

Logical thinking that is slower, conscious, effortful, and explicit