Chapter 27: The Reproductive System
the ____ plexus of testicular veins assists in cooling the testis
surigical cutting of the ductus deferens as a form of birth control is called a(n)
the erectile tissue around the urethra is the corpus ____
the midpiece of the sperm tail contains mostly ____
the ___ cells of the testis nourish the newly formed sperm cells
the suspensory ligament and mesovarium are part of the ____ ligament
a follicle with only a small antrum in it would be classified as a(n) _____ follicle
the small opening of the uterus that sperm would first enter is called the ____
the portion of the uterine endometrium that is not sloughed off every month is called the
_____ is caused by treponema pallidum
what are some risks factors for developing breast cancer
early onset of menses and late menopause
first pregnancy late in life or no pregnancies at all
family history of breast cancer
postmenopausal hormone replacement
what is the name given to the female homologue to the penis
the female clitoris is homologous to the glans pensis of the male. it is homologous in that it contains dorsal erectile columns and can become swolland with bood during tactile stimulation
describe the composition and functional roles of semen
semen is a fluid mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions (prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands). the liquid provides a transport medium for nutrients and contains chemicals that protect the sperm and facilitate their movements.
explain the funciton of the myometrium and endometrium
myometrium - plays an active role during childbirth when it contracts rhythmically to force the baby out of the mother's body
endometrium - is the innermost lining of the uterus where the embryo implants and stays for the rest of its development
what is the purpose of the male bulbourethral gland
because it releases its contents prior to ejaculation, its function is probably to neutralize the acids in the urethra
what is the physiological importance of the fact that the male testes descend to reside in the scrotal sac?
the male testes descend into the scrotal sac so that a fairly constant intrascrotal temperature is maintained. failure of the testes to descend results in sterility, because production of viable spermatozoa requires a temperature several degrees lower than normal body temperature.
ovulation occurs when the oocyte is release into the peritoneal cavity. by what means does it usually enter the uterine tube
fimbriae, which drape over the ovary, become very active close to the time of ovulation and undulate to create currents in the peritoneal fluid. these currents usually carry the oocyte to the uterine tube, where it begins its journey toward the uterus.
at what point is the sex of the embryo determined, and what determines it?
genetic sex is determined at the instant ghte genes of a sperm combine with those of an ovum. the determining factor is the sex chromosomes each gamete contains
the dartos and cremaster muscles are important to the integrity of the male reproductive system. which of the following is true about the role that they play?
they regulate the temperature of the testes
the ability of sperm cells to move along the ductus deferns is dut to _____
the ability of a male to ejaculate is due to the action of ___
the bulbospongiosus muscles
the most important risk for testicular cancer in you males is ____
nondescent of the testes
which of the following glands are responsible for 60% of the synthesis of semen?
which of the following hormones controls the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins?
development of male reproductive structures depends on which of the following events?
secretion of male hormones prenatally adn lasting into the first few months after birth
the primary function of the uterus is to ___
receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum
why is the blood-testis barrier important?
because spermatozoa and developing cells produce surface antigens that are recognized as foreign by the immune system
the structures that recieve the ovulated oocyte, providing a sit for fertilization, are called the ___
if gametes were diploid like somatic cells, how many chromosomes would the zygote contain?
twice the diploid number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to double and normal development could not occur
human egg and sperm are similar in that ____
they have the same number of chromosomes
the constancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through ____
fertilization generally occurs in the ____
speriogensis involves the ____
formation of a functional sperm by the stripping away of superfluous cytoplasm
all of the following can be considered male secondary sex characteristics except the _____
development of testes as opposed to ovaries
in humans, separation of the cells at the two-cell state following fertilization may lead to the production of twins, which in this case would be ____
characteristics of the mature sperm include the _____
presence of Y chromosomes in approximately half the sperm
how do the testes respond to exposure to excessive body warmth?
they move away from the pelvic cavity
effects of estrogen include ____
growth of the breasts at puberty
secretion of progesterone stimulates ____
preparation of the mammary glands for lactation
which is NOT true about sperm?
they are sluggish in an alkaline environment
the cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called____
the testicular cells that construct the blood-testis barrier are the ____
which of the following occurs as a result of undescended testes?
inadequate or nonviable sperm will be produced
erection of the penis results from ____.
a paraympathetic reflex
which is not part of the proliferative phase of the female menstrual cycle
which of the choices below is not a function of the vagina
serves as a passageway for the primary oocyte
select the correct statement about male sexual response
erection is the result of vascular spaces in the erectile tissues filling with blood
which of the choices below is not a function of testosterone
stimulates mammary gland development
which male hormone inhibits the secretion of FSH
during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ____
progesterone levels are at their highest
select the correct statement about the uterine cycle
if fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo
which of the choices below is NOT a part of the brain-testicular axis
which of the following statements is true concerning the mammary glands of both males and females
the mammory glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system
normally menstruation occurs when ___
blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease
the basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that ____
in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell
occasionally three polar bodies are found clinging to the mature ovum. once came from an unequal divison of the ovum, but from where id the other two arise?
the first polar body has also divided to produce two polar bodies
which of the following will occur after ovulation
the endometrium enters its secretory phase
why doesn't semen enter the urinary bladder during ejaculation
the smooth muscle sphincter at the base of the urinary bladder closes
involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes
which hormone is absolutely necessary for ovulation to occur
the brain-testicular axis ____
involves FSH and LH release
select the correct statement about testosterone control
GnRH from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary
which of the following is a correct statement about uterine tubes?
the infundibulum is the funnel-shaped region near the ovary
select the correct statement about the hormonal events of the ovarian cycle
high estrogen levels result in a surge of LH release
which of these statements about sexually transmitted infections is false?
syphilis is caused by a virus that may lead to death if untreated
which of the following statements about speratogenesis is NOT true
each spermatid forms two sperm
a boy who has not passed through puberty sustains an injury to his anterior pituitary such that FSH is no longer release, but LH is normal. after he grows to maturity, one would expect that he would ______
which of the following statements about the female reproductive process is NOT true
rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin
a low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause _____
decreased testosterone secretion
all of the following statements referring to the uterine cycle are true EXCEPT _____
FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium
which of the following phases or processes in the monthly reproductive cycle of the femal occur simultaneously?
regression of the corpus luteum and a decrease in ovarian progesterone secretion
the duct system of the male reproductive system does not include the ____
an ovulating oocyte is actually activated by hormones about _____ days before ovulation
prostate cancer is _____
sometimes a slow-growing cancer that may never represent a threat to the patient