Chapter 27: The Reproductive System

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1

the ____ plexus of testicular veins assists in cooling the testis

pampiniform

2

surigical cutting of the ductus deferens as a form of birth control is called a(n)

vasectomy

3

the erectile tissue around the urethra is the corpus ____

spongiosum

4

the midpiece of the sperm tail contains mostly ____

mitochondria

5

the ___ cells of the testis nourish the newly formed sperm cells

sustentacular

6

the suspensory ligament and mesovarium are part of the ____ ligament

broad

7

a follicle with only a small antrum in it would be classified as a(n) _____ follicle

secondary

8

the small opening of the uterus that sperm would first enter is called the ____

external os

9

the portion of the uterine endometrium that is not sloughed off every month is called the

stratum basalis

10

_____ is caused by treponema pallidum

syphilis

11

what are some risks factors for developing breast cancer

early onset of menses and late menopause

first pregnancy late in life or no pregnancies at all

family history of breast cancer

postmenopausal hormone replacement

12

what is the name given to the female homologue to the penis

the female clitoris is homologous to the glans pensis of the male. it is homologous in that it contains dorsal erectile columns and can become swolland with bood during tactile stimulation

13

describe the composition and functional roles of semen

semen is a fluid mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions (prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands). the liquid provides a transport medium for nutrients and contains chemicals that protect the sperm and facilitate their movements.

14

explain the funciton of the myometrium and endometrium

myometrium - plays an active role during childbirth when it contracts rhythmically to force the baby out of the mother's body

endometrium - is the innermost lining of the uterus where the embryo implants and stays for the rest of its development

15

what is the purpose of the male bulbourethral gland

because it releases its contents prior to ejaculation, its function is probably to neutralize the acids in the urethra

16

what is the physiological importance of the fact that the male testes descend to reside in the scrotal sac?

the male testes descend into the scrotal sac so that a fairly constant intrascrotal temperature is maintained. failure of the testes to descend results in sterility, because production of viable spermatozoa requires a temperature several degrees lower than normal body temperature.

17

ovulation occurs when the oocyte is release into the peritoneal cavity. by what means does it usually enter the uterine tube

fimbriae, which drape over the ovary, become very active close to the time of ovulation and undulate to create currents in the peritoneal fluid. these currents usually carry the oocyte to the uterine tube, where it begins its journey toward the uterus.

18

at what point is the sex of the embryo determined, and what determines it?

genetic sex is determined at the instant ghte genes of a sperm combine with those of an ovum. the determining factor is the sex chromosomes each gamete contains

19

the dartos and cremaster muscles are important to the integrity of the male reproductive system. which of the following is true about the role that they play?

they regulate the temperature of the testes

20

the ability of sperm cells to move along the ductus deferns is dut to _____

peristaltic contractions

21

the ability of a male to ejaculate is due to the action of ___

the bulbospongiosus muscles

22

the most important risk for testicular cancer in you males is ____

nondescent of the testes

23

which of the following glands are responsible for 60% of the synthesis of semen?

seminal vesicles

24

which of the following hormones controls the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins?

GnRH

25

development of male reproductive structures depends on which of the following events?

secretion of male hormones prenatally adn lasting into the first few months after birth

26

the primary function of the uterus is to ___

receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum

27

why is the blood-testis barrier important?

because spermatozoa and developing cells produce surface antigens that are recognized as foreign by the immune system

28

the structures that recieve the ovulated oocyte, providing a sit for fertilization, are called the ___

fallopian tubes

29

if gametes were diploid like somatic cells, how many chromosomes would the zygote contain?

twice the diploid number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to double and normal development could not occur

30

human egg and sperm are similar in that ____

they have the same number of chromosomes

31

the constancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through ____

meiosis

32

fertilization generally occurs in the ____

fallopian tubes

33

speriogensis involves the ____

formation of a functional sperm by the stripping away of superfluous cytoplasm

34

all of the following can be considered male secondary sex characteristics except the _____

development of testes as opposed to ovaries

35

in humans, separation of the cells at the two-cell state following fertilization may lead to the production of twins, which in this case would be ____

identical

36

characteristics of the mature sperm include the _____

presence of Y chromosomes in approximately half the sperm

37

how do the testes respond to exposure to excessive body warmth?

they move away from the pelvic cavity

38

effects of estrogen include ____

growth of the breasts at puberty

39

secretion of progesterone stimulates ____

preparation of the mammary glands for lactation

40

which is NOT true about sperm?

they are sluggish in an alkaline environment

41

the cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called____

interstitial cells

42

the testicular cells that construct the blood-testis barrier are the ____

sustentacular cells

43

which of the following occurs as a result of undescended testes?

inadequate or nonviable sperm will be produced

44

erection of the penis results from ____.

a paraympathetic reflex

45

which is not part of the proliferative phase of the female menstrual cycle

corpus luteum

46

which of the choices below is not a function of the vagina

serves as a passageway for the primary oocyte

47

select the correct statement about male sexual response

erection is the result of vascular spaces in the erectile tissues filling with blood

48

which of the choices below is not a function of testosterone

stimulates mammary gland development

49

which male hormone inhibits the secretion of FSH

inhibin

50

during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ____

progesterone levels are at their highest

51

select the correct statement about the uterine cycle

if fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo

52

which of the choices below is NOT a part of the brain-testicular axis

thalamus

53

which of the following statements is true concerning the mammary glands of both males and females

the mammory glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system

54

normally menstruation occurs when ___

blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease

55

the basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that ____

in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell

56

occasionally three polar bodies are found clinging to the mature ovum. once came from an unequal divison of the ovum, but from where id the other two arise?

the first polar body has also divided to produce two polar bodies

57

which of the following will occur after ovulation

the endometrium enters its secretory phase

58

why doesn't semen enter the urinary bladder during ejaculation

the smooth muscle sphincter at the base of the urinary bladder closes

59

spermatogenesis _____

involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes

60

which hormone is absolutely necessary for ovulation to occur

LH

61

the brain-testicular axis ____

involves FSH and LH release

62

select the correct statement about testosterone control

GnRH from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary

63

which of the following is a correct statement about uterine tubes?

the infundibulum is the funnel-shaped region near the ovary

64

select the correct statement about the hormonal events of the ovarian cycle

high estrogen levels result in a surge of LH release

65

which of these statements about sexually transmitted infections is false?

syphilis is caused by a virus that may lead to death if untreated

66

which of the following statements about speratogenesis is NOT true

each spermatid forms two sperm

67

a boy who has not passed through puberty sustains an injury to his anterior pituitary such that FSH is no longer release, but LH is normal. after he grows to maturity, one would expect that he would ______

be sterile

68

which of the following statements about the female reproductive process is NOT true

rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin

69

a low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause _____

decreased testosterone secretion

70

all of the following statements referring to the uterine cycle are true EXCEPT _____

FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium

71

which of the following phases or processes in the monthly reproductive cycle of the femal occur simultaneously?

regression of the corpus luteum and a decrease in ovarian progesterone secretion

72

the duct system of the male reproductive system does not include the ____

corpus spongiosum

73

an ovulating oocyte is actually activated by hormones about _____ days before ovulation

110 days

74

prostate cancer is _____

sometimes a slow-growing cancer that may never represent a threat to the patient