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The space between the dendrites of one neuron and the terminal buttons of another is the

A) node of Ranvier.

B) axon.

C) medulla.

D) synapse.

E) myelin sheath



Learned taste aversions generally result from

A) negative reinforcement.

B) shaping.

C) insight learning.

D) classical conditioning.

E) operant conditioning



Which theory of motivation best explains why some people enjoy dangerous hobbies such as skydiving and bungee jumping?

A) drive reduction theory

B) incentive theory

C) arousal theory

D) sociobiology

E) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs



After finishing work on a big English project, Leo’s room is a mess. His parents are furious and, without letting him explain, prohibit him from using his car or his cell phone for a month. Using this information, which parenting style are Leo’s parents most likely using?

A) authoritative

B) indulgent

C) neglectful

D) authoritarian

E) democratic



The easiest and most common technique used to gather information about people’s personalities is by

A) administering projective tests.

B) observing people’s behavior.

C) using brain scans.

D) asking people to fill out self-report inventories.

E) using free association and dream analysis



Saluja decides she wants to try hanging out with a new group of friends. She used to be on the debate team but now tries out for the spring musical. Which of Erikson’s stages is she most likely to be in?

A) generativity versus stagnation

B) intimacy versus isolation

C) autonomy versus shame and doubt

D) initiative versus guilt

E) identity versus role confusion



Daniel is learning that five pennies spread out on his desk are the same number of coins as five pennies in a pile. According to Piaget, how old is Daniel likely to be?

A) 1 year

B) 2 years

C) 4 years

D) 8 years

E) 13 years



Your knowledge of skills such as how to tie your shoes or ride a bicycle is thought to be stored in which part of the brain?

A) hippocampus

B) cerebral cortex

C) medulla

D) amygdala

E) cerebellum



Zach is leaving for college and wants to teach his parents how to program their DVR before he goes. What reinforcement schedule would be more effective to teach them this new skill?

A) continuous reinforcement

B) fixed ratio

C) fixed interval

D) variable ratio

E) variable interval



Which of the following is an opiate?

A) cocaine

B) amphetamines

C) heroin

D) nicotine

E) caffeine



Mr. Kan is making soup. After tasting it, he decides it needs more salt and slowly adds some until he can first detect that the soup is saltier than it was before. The amount of salt Mr. Kan needs to add depends on his

A) absolute threshold.

B) perceptual set.

C) difference threshold.

D) olfactory sensitivity.

E) gate-control theory.



Infants teach their parents to hold them a lot by crying whenever they are put down. When they are picked up, the babies stop crying. The parents are learning to pick up their babies via

A) insight learning.

B) positive reinforcement.

C) negative reinforcement.

D) latent learning.

E) punishment.



Jenna invited Mari to a Ben Folds concert. Mari loves Ben Folds but loathes Jenna. What type of conflict is Mari experiencing?

A) approach-approach

B) avoidance-avoidance

C) approach-avoidance

D) multiple approach-avoidance

E) None, she should just go to the concert.



Which type of personality theorist would most likely be criticized for underestimating the impact of the environment?

A) trait

B) behaviorist

C) cognitive

D) psychodynamic

E) social-cognitive



Dr. Hernandez believes that poverty lies at the root of most of her inner-city clients’ mental illnesses. This perspective is best labeled

A) humanistic.

B) sociocultural.

C) biomedical.

D) cognitive.

E) behavioral



Elsa hates her boss, but, in order to be successful at work, she goes out of her way to be nice to him. According to cognitive dissonance theory, Elsa’s behavior is likely to

A) make her resent her boss.

B) lead her to displace her hostility onto others.

C) cause her to work below her potential.

D) result in more positive feelings about her boss.

E) produce psychological problems in other aspects of her life.



ECT is most likely to be used to treat

A) schizophrenia.

B) phobias.

C) depression.

D) antisocial personality disorder.

E) ECT is no longer an accepted medical treatment.



One drawback of cross-sectional research is that

A) differences between groups can be due to age or to cohort effects.

B) it takes a long time to complete this type of research.

C) participants are particularly likely to drop out during the study.

D) it is more expensive than most other kinds of research.

E) it is only effective with participants in certain socioeconomic strata.



In the past when Nuara’s computer wouldn’t print, she remedied the situation by restarting the computer. One day Nuara’s printer came unplugged, but instead of checking the connections, she repeatedly restarted the computer. Nuara’s behavior can best be explained by

A) proactive interference.

B) functional fixedness.

C) belief bias.

D) framing.

E) mental set



Sabrina finds a strong, negative correlation between hours spent meditating and reported stress levels. Her findings indicate that

A) if a person meditates daily, she or he will not experience any stress.

B) people who meditate a lot tend to have higher stress levels.

C) meditation lowers stress levels in humans.

D) people with low stress levels meditate more than people with high stress levels.

E) the failure to meditate is a major cause of stress in humans



Which of the following is a hormone?

A) dopamine

B) endorphins

C) insulin


E) acetylcholine



Gonzo raised his hand to answer his teacher’s question. Which part of his nervous system most directly allowed him to perform this behavior?

A) parasympathetic

B) somatic

C) autonomic

D) sympathetic

E) central



Which part of the brain is most important in regulating an animal’s sex drive?

A) amygdala

B) hypothalamus

C) pituitary gland

D) medulla

E) hippocampus



Five-year-old Olivia has never been outside of her neighborhood in New York City. Walking home from school one day, Olivia saw a cow standing in the middle of a cement ball field. To recognize the cow, Olivia most likely had to rely on

A) signal detection theory.

B) perceptual set.

C) bottom-up processing.

D) difference threshold.

E) brightness constancy



Kelsey is an attractive twenty-something with many friends. She is struggling to make a name for herself in Hollywood as an actress. Although she gets enough work to support herself, she does mostly commercials and small roles in minor films. Abraham Maslow would say that Kelsey is still striving to meet her need

A) to self-actualize.

B) for safety.

C) for esteem.

D) to belong.

E) for power



Roscoe works for a nasty and abusive boss but tells everyone what a wonderful woman she is. Psychoanalysts would say that Roscoe is using which of the following defense mechanisms?

A) displacement

B) reaction formation

C) projection

D) sublimation

E) intellectualization



The typical age of onset for schizophrenia is

A) at birth.

B) during childhood.

C) during young adulthood.

D) during middle age.

E) after age 70.



Research suggests that genetic and other biological factors play the greatest role in causing

A) simple phobias.

B) agoraphobia.

C) dissociative identity disorder.

D) bipolar disorder.

E) conversion disorder



Tom is a Type A individual who is seeking short-term, focused psychotherapy to help him make his lifestyle healthier. With what kind of therapist do you think Tom would be happiest?

A) behaviorist

B) psychodynamic

C) sociocultural

D) humanistic

E) somatic



Dr. Kraysin rejects the Big Five model of personality because she believes that people are so different it is impossible to describe them all with a common set of traits. What kind of trait theory would Dr. Kraysin favor?

A) cognitive

B) psychodynamic

C) idiographic

D) sociocultural

E) individual



Supporters of attachment parenting argue that babies like to be held all the time and that parents should seek to maximize the amount of physical contact they have with their babies. Such research is most in line with the findings of

A) Gilligan.

B) Piaget.

C) Harlow.

D) Freud.

E) Kohlberg



Isabella fondly remembers the first time she went skydiving. This information is an example of

A) declarative memory.

B) semantic memory.

C) implicit memory.

D) eidetic memory.

E) procedural memory.



According to the James-Lange theory of emotion

A) a specific physiological reaction to an event triggers the recognition of a specific emotion.

B) the thalamus is the key part of the brain involved in emotion.

C) an initial emotion leads to the expression of the antagonistic emotion and that second emotion grows stronger with repetition.

D) emotions are expressed the same way across different cultures.

E) different emotions result from different interpretations of similar physiological responses.



Which of the following is an example of observational learning?

A) a girl learns to howl by watching wolves on a television show

B) a parrot learns to say “mama” by listening to its owner

C) a student learns to type through the process of trial and error

D) a kitten learns to chase birds by copying its mother

E) a boy learns to make his bed after his parents reward him with money



Which of the following is an example of discrimination?

A) Jessica continues to talk during class even after being publicly reprimanded by the teacher.

B) Melissa has learned to dig for earthworms only after it rains.

C) Franz always bounces the basketball three times before shooting a free throw.

D) After his father yells at and punishes him, Helmut winces when he hears a man yell on television.

E) Mr. Black wants his students to call him by his first name and not to raise their hands. Weeks into the semester after having given up these habits, some of Mr. Black’s students still occasionally raise their hands.



When a neuron initially depolarizes

A) sodium ions flow into the cell.

B) chloride ions flow into the cell.

C) magnesium ions flow into the cell.

D) potassium ions flow out of the cell.

E) strontium ions flow out of the cell.



The part of the brain most responsible for making decisions is the

A) thalamus.

B) amygdala.

C) hippocampus.

D) prefrontal cortex.

E) corpus callosum.



As Mobu walked to homeroom, he passed dozens of his classmates in the hallway. What they were wearing that day was briefly in Mobu’s

A) short-term memory.

B) iconic memory.

C) long-term memory.

D) echoic memory.

E) working memory.



Your knowledge of who the first president of the United States was is usually found in which level of your consciousness?

A) conscious

B) nonconscious

C) preconscious

D) subconscious

E) unconscious



Karl is so consumed by his fears of sexual inadequacy that he has not been on a date in over two years. To which of the following would a psychoanalyst be most likely to attribute Karl’s problem?

A) an overly strong libido

B) the reality principle

C) the preconscious

D) an anal expulsive personality

E) a phallic fixation



You are at a lecture about the history of psychology and the speaker states that Wilhelm Wundt’s theory of structuralism was the first scientific psychological theory. On what historical fact might the speaker be basing her or his argument?

A)Wundt was internationally known at the time, and this lent credence to his theory in the scientific community.

B) Wundt studied under Ivan Pavlov for his graduate training, and Pavlov required scientific methods to be used.

C) Structuralism was based on the results of his introspection experiments, so it is, at least in part, empirical.

D) Structuralism was based on careful anecdotes gathered from Wundt’s extensive clinical career.

E) Wundt was the first person to study psychology in an academic setting.



Sigmund Freud’s theory of the unconscious mind

A) was revolutionary because it was the first comprehensive explanation of human thought and behavior.

B) resulted from discoveries about the human brain obtained by cadaver dissection.

C) is outdated and has no relevance for modern psychology.

D) focused entirely on human males’ sex drive.

E) depends on the idea that humans can remember events but not be consciously aware of the memory



In what way might a behaviorist disagree with a cognitive psychologist about the cause of aggression?

A) A behaviorist might state that aggression is caused by memories or ways we think about aggressive behavior, while a cognitive psychologist might say aggression is caused by a past repressed experience.

B) A behaviorist might state that aggression is a behavior encouraged by our genetic code, while a cognitive psychologist might state that aggression is caused by memories or ways we think about aggressive behavior.

C) A behaviorist might state that aggression is caused by past rewards for aggressive behavior, while a cognitive psychologist might believe aggression is caused by an expressed desire to fulfill certain life needs.

D) A behaviorist might state that aggression is caused by past rewards for aggressive behavior, while a cognitive psychologist might believe aggression is caused by memories or ways we think about aggressive behavior.

E) A behaviorist would not disagree with a cognitive psychologist about aggression because they both believe that aggressive behavior is caused by the way we cognitively process certain behaviors.



Dr. Marco explains to a client that his feelings of hostility toward a coworker are most likely caused by the way the client interprets the coworker’s actions and the way he thinks that people should behave at work. Dr. Marco is most likely working from what perspective?

A) behavioral

B) cognitive

C) psychoanalytic

D) humanist

E) social-cultural



The research methodology Wilhelm Wundt used is called

A) introspection.

B) structuralism.

C) naturalistic observation.

D) inferential.

E) scientific.



Which of the following psychologists was part of the Gestalt group of psychologists?

A) Carl Rogers

B) Wilhelm Wundt

C) B. F. Skinner

D) John Watson

E) Max Wertheimer



Which of the following concepts is most integral to Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory?

A) trephining

B) structuralism

C) the unconscious mind

D) the concept of Gestalt

E) behaviorism



John Watson relied on the pioneering work of __________ in establishing behaviorism as a paradigm of psychology.

A) B. F. Skinner

B) Wilhelm Wundt

C) William James

D) Ivan Pavlov

E) Sigmund Freud



B. F. Skinner introduced the idea of __________ to the paradigm of behaviorism.

A) unconscious thinking

B) reinforcement

C) conditioning

D) defense mechanisms

E) introspection



Which of the following psychologists might have described himself as a humanist?

A) B. F. Skinner

B) William James

C) Abraham Maslow

D) John Watson

E) Ivan Pavlov



Symbolic dream analysis might be an important research technique to a psychologist from which of the following perspectives?

A) behaviorist

B) biopsychologist

C) psychoanalytic

D) evolutionary

E) structuralist



Behaviorists explain human thought and behavior as a result of

A) past conditioning.

B) unconscious behavioral impulses.

C) natural selections.

D) biological processes.

E) individual choice.



A therapist who says that she uses whatever psychological perspective “works best” for each patient might be best described as

A) social-cultural.

B) humanist.

C) eclectic.

D) psychoanalytic.

E) functionalist.



Psychologists generally prefer the experimental method to other research methods because

A) experiments are more likely to support psychologists’ hypotheses.

B) experiments can show cause-effect relationships.

C) it is easier to obtain a random sample for an experiment.

D) double-blind designs are unnecessary in an experiment.

E) experiments are more likely to result in statistically significant findings



Theoretically, random assignment should eliminate

A) sampling error.

B) the need to use statistics.

C) concerns over validity.

D) many confounding variables.

E) the need for a representative sample



Karthik and Sue are lab partners assigned to research who is friendlier, girls or boys. After conversing with their first 10 participants, they find that their friendliness ratings often differ. With which of the following should they be most concerned?

A) reliability

B) confounding variables

C) validity

D) ethics

E) assignment



Which of the following hypotheses would be most difficult to test experimentally?

A) People exposed to the color red will be more aggressive than those exposed to the color blue.

B) Exercise improves mood.

C) Exposure to violent television increases aggression.

D) Studying leads to better grades.

E) Divorce makes children more independent.



One of the principal differences between the ethical guidelines for human and animal research is:

A) Human subjects can be deceived for experimental purposes and animals cannot.

B) Animal subjects can be placed at much greater physical risk than human subjects can.

C) Human subjects must be chosen much more carefully than animal subjects.

D) If humans might physically suffer because of the study, the suffering must be minimal, in contrast to animal studies where any amount of suffering is ethical if it helps to further a clear scientific purpose.

E) Environmental conditions for human studies must be monitored much more closely than they are in an animal study



Jose hypothesizes that a new drug he has just invented will enhance mice’s memories. He feeds the drug to the experimental group and gives the control group aplacebo. He then times the mice as they learn to run through a maze. In order to know whether his hypothesis has been supported, Jose would need to use

A) scatter plots.

B) descriptive statistics.

C) histograms.

D) inferential statistics.

E) means-end analysis



Which of the following is an example of random sampling?I. Picking out of a hat to assign each of three classes to an experimental condition.II. Having a computer generate a random list of 100 high school students.III. Approaching any 50 students during sixth-period lunch.

A) I only

B) II only

C) III only

D) I and II

E) I, II, and II



Charlotte, a nursery school student, hypothesizes that boys have fights with the finger paints more than girls do. She tests her hypothesis by casually watching the finger-painting table for three days of nursery school. Whatmethod is she using?

A) field experiment

B) informal survey

C) case study

D) naturalistic observation

E) ethnography



Blindness could result from damage to which cortex and lobe of the brain?

A) visual cortex in the frontal lobe

B) visual cortex in the temporal lobe

C) sensory cortex in the parietal lobe

D) visual cortex in the occipital lobe

E) cerebral cortex in the occipital lobe



Paralysis of the left arm might be explained by a problem in the

A) motor cortex in the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere.

B) motor cortex in the frontal lobe in the right hemisphere.

C) sensorimotor cortex in the temporal lobe in the left hemisphere.

D) motor cortexin the parietal lobe in the left hemisphere.

E) motor cortex in the occipital lobe in the right hemisphere.



Deafness can result from damage to the inner ear or damage to what area of the brain?

A) connections between the auditory nerve and the auditory cortex in the frontal lobe

B) connections between the auditory nerve and the auditory cortex in the temporal lobe

C) connections between the areas of the sensory cortex thatreceive messages from the ears and the auditory cortex

D) connections between the hypothalamus and the auditory cortex in the temporal lobe

E) connections between the left and right sensory areas of the cerebellum



According to the theory of evolution, why might we call some parts of the brain the old brain and some parts the new brain?

A) Old brain parts are what exist in very young children, and the new brain develops later.

B) The old brain developed first according to evolution.

C) The old brain becomes more active as we grow older.

D) The new brain deals with new information, while the old brain deals with information gathered when we were children.

E) The old brain is most affected by age deterioration (dementias) while the new brain remains unaffected



Which chemicals pass across the synaptic gap and increase the possibility the next neuron in the chain will fire?

A) synaptic peptides

B) inhibitory neurotransmitters

C) adrenaline-type exciters

D) excitatory neurotransmitters

E) potassium and sodium



A spinal reflex differs from a normal sensory and motor reaction in that

A) a spinal reflex occurs only in response to extremely stressful stimuli.

B) in a spinal reflex, the spine moves the muscles in response as soon as the sensory information reaches the spine while usually the impulse must reach the brain before a response.

C) in a normal sensory/motor reaction, the spine transmits the information through afferent nerve fibers, while reflex reactions are transmitted along special efferent nerves.

D) spinal reflexes are part of the central nervous system response, while normal sensory/motor reactions are part of the peripheral nervous system.

E) spinal reflexes occur only in animals because humans are born without instinctual responses.



Antidepressant drugs like Prozac are often used to treat mood disorders. According to what you know about their function, which neurotransmitter system do these types of drugs try to affect?

A) serotonin

B) adrenaline

C) acetylcholine

D) endorphins

E) morphine



Which sentence most closely describes neural transmission?

A) An electric charge is created in the neuron, the charge travels down the cell, and chemicals are released that cross the synapse to the next cell.

B) A chemical change occurs within the cell, the change causes an electric charge to be produced, and the charge jumps the gap between the nerve cells.

C) The electric charge produced chemically inside a group of neurons causes chemical changes in surrounding cells.

D) Neurotransmitters produced in the hindbrain are transmitted to the forebrain, causing electric changes in the cerebral cortex.

E) Neural transmission is an electrochemical process both inside and outside the cell.



Dr. Dahab, a brain researcher, is investigating the connection between certain environmental stimuli and brain processes. Which types of brain scans is he most likely to use?

A) MRI and CAT

B) CAT and EKG

C) PET and EEG

D) EKG and CAT

E) lesioning and MRI



Split-brain patients are unable to

A) coordinate movements between their major and minor muscle groups.

B) speak about information received exclusively in their right hemisphere.

C) speak about information received exclusively in their left hemisphere.

D) solve abstract problems involving integrating logical (left-hemisphere) and spatial (right-hemisphere) information.

E) speak about information received exclusively through their left ear, left eye, or left side of their bodies



When brain researchers refer to brain plasticity,they are talking about

A) the brain’s ability to quickly regrow damaged neurons.

B) the surface texture and appearance caused by the layer known as the cerebral cortex.

C) the brain’s versatility caused by the millions of different neural connections.

D) our adaptability to different problems ranging from survival needs to abstract reasoning

E) new connections forming in the brain to take over for damaged sections.



Mr. Spam is a 39-year-old malewho has been brought into your neurology clinic by his wife. She has become increasingly alarmed by her husband’s behavior over the last four months. You recommend a CAT scan to look for tumors in the brain. Which two parts of the brain would you predict are being affected by the tumors?List of symptoms: vastly increased appetite, body temperature fluctuations, decreased sexual desire, jerky movements, poor balance when walking and standing, inability to throw objects, and exaggerated efforts to coordinate movements in a task

A) motor cortex and emotion cortex

B) somato-sensory cortex and hypothalamus

C) hypothalamus and cerebellum

D) cerebellum and medulla

E) thalamus and motor cortex



In most people, which one of following is a specific function of the left hemisphere that is typically not controlled by the right hemisphere?

A) producing speech

B) control of the left hand

C) spatial reasoning

D) hypothesis testing

E) abstract reasoning



Our sense of smell may be a powerful trigger for memories because

A) we are conditioned from birth to make strong connections between smells and events.

B) the nerve connecting the olfactory bulb sends impulses directly to the limbic system.

C) the receptors at the top of each nostril connect with the cortex.

D) smell is a powerful cue for encoding memories into long-term memory.

E) strong smells encourage us to process events deeply so they will most likely be remembered



The cochlea is responsible for

A) protecting the surface of the eye.

B) transmitting vibrations received by the eardrum to the hammer, anvil, and stirrup.

C) transforming vibrations into neural signals.

D) coordinating impulses from the rods and cones in the retina.

E) sending messages to the brain about orientation of the head and body.



The blind spot in our eye results from

A) the lack of receptors at the spot where the optic nerve connects to the retina.

B) the shadow the pupil makes on the retina.

C) competing processing between the visual cortices in theleft and right hemisphere.

D) floating debris in the space between the lens and the retina.

E) retinal damage from bright light.



Smell and taste are called __________ because __________

A) energy senses; they send impulses to the brain in the form of electric energy.

B) chemical senses; they detect chemicals in what we taste and smell.

C) flavor senses; smell and taste combine to create flavor.

D) chemical senses; they send impulses to the brain in the form of chemicals.

E) memory senses; they both have powerful connections to memory.



What is the principal difference between amplitude and frequency in the context of sound waves?

A) Amplitude is the tone or timbre of a sound, whereas frequency is the pitch.

B) Amplitude is detected in the cochlea, whereas frequency is detected in the auditory cortex.

C) Amplitude is the height of the sound wave, whereas frequency is a measure of how frequently the sound waves pass a given point.

D) Both measure qualities of sound, but frequency is a more accurate measure since it measures the shapes of the waves rather than the strength of the waves.

E) Frequency is a measure for light waves, whereas amplitude is a measure for sound waves.



Weber’s law determines

A) absolute threshold.

B) focal length of the eye.

C) level of subliminal messages.

D) amplitude of sound waves.

E) just-noticeable difference.



Gate-control theory refers to

A) which sensory impulses are transmitted first from each sense.

B) which pain messages are perceived.

C) interfering sound waves, causing some waves to be undetected.

D) the gate at theoptic chiasm controlling the destination hemisphere for visual information from each eye.

E) how our minds choose to use either bottom-up or top-down processing



If you had sight in only one eye, which of the following depth cues could you NOT use?

A) texture gradient

B) convergence

C) linear perspective

D) interposition

E) shading



Which of the following sentences best describes the relationship between sensation and perception?

A) Sensation is a strictly mechanical process, whereas perception is a cognitive process.

B) Perception is an advanced form of sensation.

C) Sensation happens in the senses, whereas perception happens in the brain.

D) Sensation is detecting stimuli, perception is interpreting stimuli detected.

E) Sensation involves learning and expectations, and perception does no



What function does the retina serve?

A) The retina contains the visual receptor cells.

B) The retina focuses light coming in the eye through the lens.

C) The retina determines how much light is let into the eye.

D) The retina determines which rods and cones will be activated by incoming light.

E) The retina connects the two optic nerves and sends impulses to the left and right visual cortices.



Color blindness and color afterimages are best explained by what theory of color vision?

A) trichromatic theory

B) visible hue theory

C) opponent-process theory

D)dichromatic theory

E) binocular disparity theory



You are shown a picture of your grandfather’s face, but the eyes and mouth are blocked out. You still recognize it as a picture of your grandfather. Which type of processing best explains this example of perception?

A) bottom-up processing

B) signal detection theory

C) top-down processing

D) opponent-process theory

E) gestalt replacement theory



What behavior would be difficult without our vestibular sense?

A) integrating what we see and hear

B) writing our name

C) repeating a list of digits

D) walking a straight line with our eyes closed

E) reporting to a researcher the exact position and orientation of our limbs



Which of the following sentences best describes the relationship between culture and perception?

A) Our perceptual rules are inborn and not affected by culture.

B) Perceptual rules are culturally based, so rules that apply to one culture rarely apply to another.

C) Most perceptual rules apply in all cultures, but some perceptual rules are learned and vary between cultures.

D) Slight variations in sensory apparatuses among cultures create slight differences in perception.

E) The processes involved in perception are genetically based, so genetic differences among cultures affect perception



Agonists are psychoactive drugs that

A) produce tolerance to the drug without the associated withdrawal symptoms.

B) mimic and produce the same effect as certain neurotransmitters.

C) mimic neurotransmitters and block their receptor sites.

D) enhance the effects of certain opiates like heroin.

E) make recovery from physical addiction more difficult.



Marijuana falls under what category of psychoactive drug?


B) mood elevator

C) hallucinogen

D) stimulant

E) mood depressant



Which neurotransmitter is affected by opiates?

A) serotonin

B) endorphins

C) dopamine


E) acetylcholine



In the context of this unit, the term tolerance refers to

A) treatment of psychoactive drug addicts by peers and other members of society.

B) the amount of sleep a person needs to function normally.

C) the need for an elevated dose of a drug in order to get the same effect.

D) the labeling of individuals automatically produced by the level of our consciousness.

E) the harmful side effects of psychoactive drugs.



Just before something scary happens in a horror film, they often play scary-sounding music. When I hear the music, I tense up in anticipation of the scary event. In this situation, the music serves as a

A) US.

B) CS.

C) UR.

D) CR.




In teaching your cat to jump through a hoop, which reinforcement schedule would facilitate the most rapid learning?

A) continuous

B) fixed ratio

C) variable ratio

D) fixed interval

E) variable interval



Tina likes to play with slugs, but she can find them by the shed only after it rains. On what kind of reinforcement schedule is Tina’s slug hunting?

A) continuous

B) fixed-interval

C) fixed-ratio

D) variable-interval

E) variable-ratio



Just before the doors of the elevator close, Lola, a coworker you despise, enters the elevator. You immediately leave, mumbling about having forgotten something. Your behavior results in

A) positive reinforcement.

B) a secondary reinforcer.

C) punishment.

D) negative reinforcement.

E) omission training



Which of the following phenomena is illustrated by Tolman’s study in which rats suddenly evidenced that they had learned to get through a maze once a reward was presented?

A) insight learning

B) instrumental learning

C) latent learning

D) spontaneous recovery

E) classical conditioning



Many psychologists believe that children of parents who beat them are likely to beat their own children. One common explanation for this phenomenon is

A) modeling.

B) latent learning.

C) abstract learning.

D) instrumental learning.

E) classical conditioning.



When Tito was young, his parents decided to give him a quarter every day he made his bed. Tito started to make his siblings’ beds also and help with other chores. Behaviorists would say that Tito was experiencing

A) internal motivation.

B) spontaneous recovery.

C) acquisition.

D) generalization.

E) discrimination.



Which of the following is an example of positive reinforcement?

A) buying a child a video game after she throws a tantrum

B) going inside to escape a thunderstorm

C) assigning a student detention for fighting

D) getting a cavity filled at the dentist to halt a toothache

E) depriving a prison inmate of sleep



Lily keeps poking Jared in Mr. Clayton’s third-grade class. Mr. Clayton tells Jared to ignore Lily. Mr. Clayton is hoping that ignoring Lily’s behavior will

A) punish her.

B) extinguish the behavior

C) negatively reinforce the behavior.

D) cause Lily to generalize.

E) make the behavior latent.



Mr. Krohn, a carpenter, is frustrated because he misplaced his hammer and needs to pound in the last nail in the bookcase he is building. He overlooks the fact that he could use the tennis trophy sitting above the workbench to pound in the nail. Which concept best explains why Mr. Krohn overlooked the trophy?

A) representativeness heuristic

B) retrieval

C) functional fixedness

D) belief bias

E) divergent thinking



Which example would be better explained by the levels of processing model than the information-processing model?

A) Someone says your name across the room and you switch your attention away from the conversation you are having.

B) You forget part of a list you were trying to memorize for a test.

C) While visiting with your grandmother, you recall one of your favorite childhood toys.

D) You are able to remember verbatim a riddle you worked on for a few days before you figured out the answer.

E) You pay less attention to the smell of your neighbor’s cologne than to the professor’s lecture in your college class.



Which of the following is an example of the use of the representativeness heuristic?

A) Judging that a young person is more likely to be the instigator of an argument than an older person, because you believe younger people are more likely to start fights.

B) Breaking a math story problem down into smaller, representative parts, in order to solve it.

C) Judging a situation by a rule that is usually, but not always, true.

D) Solving a problem with a rule that guarantees the right, more representative, answer.

E) Making a judgment according to past experiences that are most easily recalled, therefore representative of experience



Which of the following is the most complete list of elements in the three-box/information-processing model?

A) sensory memory, constructive memory, working memory, and long-term memory

B) short-term memory, working memory, and long-term memory

C) shallow processing, deep processing, and retrieval

D) sensory memory, encoding, working memory, and retrieval

E) sensory memory, working memory, encoding, long-term memory, and retrieval



Which of the following is an effective method for testing whether a memory is actually true or whether it is a constructed memory?

A) checking to see whether it was deeply processed or shallowly processed

B) testing to see if the memory was encoded from sensory memory into working memory

C) using a PET scan to see if the memory is stored in the hippocampus

D) using other evidence, such as written records, to substantiate the memory

E) there is no way to tell the difference between a true memory and a constructed one



One of the ways memories are physically stored in the brain is by what process?

A) deep processing, which increases levels of neurotransmitters in the hippocampus

B) encoding, which stimulates electric activity in the hippocampus

C) long-term potentiation, which strengthens connections between neurons

D) selective attention, which increases myelination of memory neurons

E) rehearsal, which causes the brain to devote more neurons to what is being rehearsed



According to thethree-box/information-processing model, stimuli from our outside environment is first stored in

A) working memory.

B) the hippocampus.

C) the thalamus.

D) sensory memory

E) selective attention



Which of the following is the best example of the use of the availability heuristic?

A) judging a situation by a rule that is usually, but not always, true

B) making a judgment according to past experiences that are most easily recalled

C) judging that a problem should be solved using a formula that guarantees the right answer

D) making a judgment according to what is usually true in your experience

E) solving a problem by breaking it into more easily available parts



Which sentence most accurately describes sensory memory?

A) Sensory memory stores all sensory input perfectly accurately for a short period of time.

B) Sensory memory encodes only sensations we are attending to at the time.

C) Sensory memory receives memories from the working memory and decides which memories to encode in long-term memory.

D) Sensory memory records all incoming sensations and remembers them indefinitely.

E) Sensory memory records some sensations accurately, but some are recorded incorrectly, leading to constructive memory.



Recall is a more difficult process than recognition because

A) memories retrieved by recognition are held in working memory, and recalled memories are in long-term memory.

B) memories retrieved by recognition are more deeply processed.

C) the process of recall involves cues to the memory that causes interference.

D) memories retrieved by recognition are more recent than memories retrieved by recall.

E) the process of recognition involves matching a person, event, or object with something already in memory.



A friend mentions to you that she heard humans never forget anything; we remember everything that ever happens to us. What concept from memory research most directly contradicts this belief?

A) sensory memory

B) selective attention

C) long-term memory

D) constructive memory

E) recovered memory



How would drive reduction theory explain a person accepting a new job with a higher salary but that requires more work and responsibility?

A) Money is a more powerful incentive for this individual than free time.

B) This person seeks a higher activity level and takes the job in order to satisfy this drive.

C) For this person, money is a higher-level need than free time.

D) The person takes the job to satisfy the secondary drive of increased salary.

E) Humans instinctively seek greater resources and control over their environment



The Yerkes-Dodson law predicts that most people would perform an easy task best if they are at a

A) high level of arousal.

B) low level of arousal.

C) baseline state.

D) level of self-actualization.

E) state of homeostasis.



What is the principle difference between how achievement motivation theory and arousal theory explain human motivation?

A) Achievement motivation is a specific example of arousal motivation.

B) Arousal theory describes the optimum level of general arousal an individual seeks, while achievement motivation describes what type of goals the individual is motivated to achieve.

C) Arousal theory describes motivation by referring to stages in our responses to stress (the general adaptation syndrome). Achievement motivation is not used to describe motivation due to stress.

D) A person with a low optimum level of arousal according to arousal theory would have a high achievement motivation.

E) Arousal theory is an older, outdated precursor to achievement motivation theory.



Which of the following are reasons why intrinsic motivation might be more advantageous than extrinsic motivation?

A) Intrinsic motivation might be more enduring since extrinsic motivations are usually temporary.

B) Intrinsic motivations are easier and more convenient to provide.

C) Intrinsic motivations are higher on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, so we are motivated to meet them before extrinsic needs.

D) Intrinsic motivations are more likely to be primary drives. Extrinsic motivations are secondary drives.

E) Intrinsic motivations are more effective with a wider range ofindividuals



What does Schachter’s two-factor theory state about the relationship between emotion and physiological reaction?

A) Emotions are caused by physiological reactions. For example, we feel excited because our heart begins to race.

B) Physiological reactions are caused by emotions. For example, our experience of fear causes our breathing rate to increase.

C) A combination of physiological reactions and our cognitive interpretation of an event produces emotion.

D) Physiological reactions and emotional response occur simultaneously.

E) Cognitive emotions occur independently of physiological states and are unrelated



The balanced physiological state we are driven to attain by satisfying our needs is called

A) equilibrium.

B) homeostasis.

C) self-actualization.

D) primary satisfaction.

E) secondary satisfaction.



You read in your philosophy class textbook thathumans are born “tabula rasa” or “blank slates.” As a student of psychology, which of the following responses would you have?

A) The statement is incorrect. Humans may be born without reflexes and instincts, but we are born with the ability to learn them.

B) The statement is correct. Humans are born without instincts or other mechanisms in place to help us survive.

C) The statement is correct. Humans are born with a certain number of neurons, but most develop later as we learn.

D) The statement is incorrect. Humans are born with a set of reflexes that help us survive.

E) The statement is impossible to prove since we cannot infer what babies know or do not know due to their lack of language.



Parental involvement can have dramatic effects on all the following human traits except

A) intelligence.

B) reading ability.


D) motor development.

E) emotional development.



A principal difference between a longitudinal study and a cross-sectional study is the

A) number of participants involved.

B) developmental stage of the participants.

C) time span of the study.

D) statistical methods employed to evaluate the data.

E) sampling method used to choose participants.



According to research, the most advantageous parenting style for children’s development is

A) authoritarian, because children learn boundaries quickly and appreciate consistency.

B) permissive, because young children need to explore the environment more than they need guidelines for behavior.

C) authoritarian, because it combines the best elements of the permissive and authoritative styles.

D) securely attached, because children are confident parents will meet their needs.

E) authoritative, because children have boundaries that are reasonable and justified



A major difference between the psychoanalytic stage theories (Freud and Erikson) and the more cognitive or experiential stage theories (Piaget and Kohlberg) is

A) the psychoanalytic theories are less empirical.

B) the psychoanalytic theories were based exclusively on data from children with developmental disorders.

C) Freud and Erikson studied only young children, while Piaget and Kohlberg studied the full range of development.

D) only the psychoanalytic theories takeparental effects into account.

E) the psychoanalytic theories are continuous, the others are discontinuous.



You have a cousin named Holden who flunked out of three expensive private schools and was arrested for wandering the streets of New York using his parents’ credit card. Holden is intelligent but cannot seem to get motivated toward any career. What conflict would Erikson say Holden is struggling with?

A) autonomy versus authority

B) identity versus role confusion

C) integrity versus despair

D) industry versus inferiority

E) trust versus isolation



In which stage of cognitive development do infants learn object permanence?

A) preoperational

B) formal-operations

C) autonom

(D) sensorimotor

E) conventional



According to Erikson’s theory, adolescents are most primarily concerned in a search for

A) career.

B) identity.

C) affection.

D) autonomy.

E) archetypes



The ability to generate several alternate hypotheses in order to explain a phenomenon demonstrates cognition in which of the following Piagetian stages?

A) operational

B) hypothetical-operations

C) syllogistic

D) formal-operations

E) abstract reasoning



Which of the following attachment styles did Mary Ainsworth find most often in her research (in about 66 percent of the cases she studied)?

A) avoidant

B) authoritarian

C) secure

D) anxious/ambivalent

E) authoritative



Which of the following is the correct term for a mental rule Piaget said we use to interpret our environment?

A) schema

B) syllogism

C) assimilation

D) accommodation

E) hypothesis



According to Freud, which part of the mind acts as a person’s conscience?

A) Eros

B) ego

C) libido

D) superego

E) id



Which approach toward personality is the least deterministic?

A) psychoanalytic

B) humanistic

C) trait

D) behaviorist

E) biological



One of your classmates remarks that “Mary is all id.” What does she likely mean?

A) Mary uses a lot of defense mechanisms.

B) Mary is a highly ethical person.

C) Mary is a perfectionist.

D) Mary frequently pursues immediate gratification.

E) Mary is in constant conflict over the proper course of action to take.



Juan has a huge crush on Sally, but he never admits it. Instead, he tells all who will listen that Sally is really “into him.” Psychoanalysts would see Juan’s bragging as an example of

A) displacement.

B) reaction formation.

C) sublimation.

D) denial.

E) projection.



Dr. Li asks her clients to interpret ambiguous pictures of people in various settings. The method she is using is called

A) the Rorschachtest.

B) the MMPI.

C) the TAT.

D) factor analysis.

E) the WISC.



One personality trait that is thought to be highly heritable is

A) generosity.

B) sense of humor.

C) neatness.

D) introversion.

E) diligence.



Humanistic psychologists assert that people are motivated to self-actualize. Which of the following statements best describes the meaning of this term?

A) accepting themselves the way they are

B) encouraging others to pursue their dream

C) identifying core principles by which to live

D) trying to achieve their full potential

E) bringing their actions into line with their desires



Which is NOT one of the big five personality traits?

A) extraversion

B) openness

C) agreeableness

D) honesty

E) conscientiousness



Jamal sucked his thumb until age eight. As an adult, he smokes, chews gum, and thinks constantly of food. Psychoanalysts would describe Jamal as having a (an)

A) obsession.

B) orally controlled libido.

C) Oedipus complex.

D) oral fixation.

E) mother complex.



Someone who has an external locus of control is likely to have a

A) positive self-concept.

B) high sense of self-efficacy.

C) strong libido.

D) belief in luck.

E) high IQ.



What kind of psychologist would be most likely to use a projective personality assessment?

A) social cognitive

B) trait

C) behaviorist

D) humanistic

E) psychoanalytic



Redirecting one’s unacceptable urges into more socially acceptable pursuits best defines which of the following defense mechanisms?

A) intellectualization

B) denial

C) sublimation

D) rationalization

E) regression



Which of the following is not an anxiety disorder?

A) obsessive-compulsive disorder

B) conversion disorder

C) zoophobia

D) post-traumatic stress disorder

E) panic disorder



All schizophrenics suffer from

A) depression.

B) multiple personalities.

C) flat affect.

D) distorted thinking.

E) delusions of persecution



Juan hears voices that tell him to kill people. Juan is experiencing

A) delusions.

B) obsessions.

C) anxiety.

D) hallucinations.

E) compulsions



Linda’s neighbors describe her as typically shy and mild mannered. She seems to be a devoted wife and mother to her husband and three children. Unbeknownst to these neighbors, Linda sometimes dresses up in flashy, revealing clothing and goes to bars to pick up strange men. At such times, she is boisterous and overbearing. She tells everyone she meets that her name is Jen. At other times, when she is upset, Linda slips into childlike behavior and responds only to the name Sally. Linda is suffering from a

A) schizophrenic disorder.

B) mood disorder.

C) dissociative disorder.

D) somatoform disorder.

E) psychosexual disorder.



The DSM-IV-TRcontains

I. a description of the symptoms of mental disorders.

II. a description of the likely causes of mental disorders.

III. recommended methods of treatment for mental disorders.

A) I only

B) II only

C) III only

D)I and II

E) I, II, and II



All of the following are biomedical explanations for schizophrenia EXCEPT

A) double binds.

B) brain asymmetries.

C) the dopamine hypothesis.

D) a genetic predisposition.

E) enlarged brain ventricles.



Psychologists who draw from several different theoretical perspectives rather than strictly following one are known as

A) open-minded.

B) mixed.

C) flexible.

D) eclectic.

E) broad.



Depression is associated with low levels of

A) acetylcholine.

B) epinephrine.

C) serotonin.

D) dopamine.




“I am the most important person in the world” is a statement that might characterize the views of someone with which of the following personality disorders?

A) schizoid

B) antisocial

C) histrionic

D) dependent

E) narcissistic



What kind of psychologist would be most likely to describe depression as the result of an unconscious process in which anger is turned inward?

A) biomedical

B) psychoanalytic

C) cognitive

D) behavioral

E) sociocultural



Women in the United States have a higher rate of depression than do men. Which kind of psychologist would be most likely to explain this higher incidence in terms of the pressures and prejudices that women suffer?

A) humanistic

B) psychoanalytic

C) cognitive

D) behavioral

E) sociocultural



The relationship between schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease is that

A) both are caused by too little dopamine.

B) both are treated by antipsychotic drugs.

C) both can be caused by excessive use of amphetamines.

D) schizophrenia is associated with too much dopamine and Parkinson’s with too little.

E) Parkinson’s is associated with too much dopamine and schizophrenia with too little.



Anand is unable to move his right arm. He has been to scores of physicians seeking a cure, but none have been able to find any physiological reason for his paralysis. Anand may be suffering from

A) conversion disorder.

B) fugue.

C) hypochondriasis.





Which kind of therapist is most likely to analyze a client’s dreams?

A) behaviorist

B) cognitive

C) humanistic

D) psychoanalytic

E) biomedical



Coretta’s therapist says little during their sessions and never makes any recommendations about what Coretta ought to do. What kind of therapy does Coretta’s therapist most likely practice?

A) psychodynamic

B) behavioral

C) cognitive

D) biomedical

E) humanistic



Systematic desensitization is to in vivo desensitization as

A) flooding is to aversion therapy.

B) modeling is to implosive therapy.

C) aversion therapy is to modeling.

D) implosive therapy is to flooding.

E) implosive therapy is to in vivo implosive therapy.



Which process involves counterconditioning?



C) transference

D) somatic therapy

E) systematic desensitization



All of the following methods of treatment are or may be based on classical conditioning principles EXCEPT

A) token economy.

B) implosive therapy.

C) flooding.

D) systematic desensitization.

E) aversion therapy



One difference between psychoanalytic and cognitive modes of treatment is that cognitive therapists

A) say little during sessions.

B) emphasize the primacy of behavior.

C) focus on the present.

D) view repressed thoughts about one’s childhood as the root of most problems.

E) do not face their clients.



Which method of therapy is most eclectic?

A) psychodynamic

B) client-centered

C) aversive conditioning

D) psychoanalytic

E) token economy



Schizophrenia is most likely to be treated with

A) Prozac.

B) lithium.

C) Miltown.

D) Haldol.

E) Valium.



An unanticipated result of the deinstitutionalization movement was a (an)

A) increase in the homeless population.

B) increase in drug-related crime.

C) increase in the incidence of catatonic schizophrenia.

D) decrease in the availability of antipsychotic drugs.

E) decrease in the population of mental institutions



Your new neighbor seems to know everything about ancient Greece that your social studies teacher says during the first week of school. You conclude that she is brilliant. You do not consider that she might already have learned about ancient Greece in herold school. You are evidencing

A) the self-fulfilling prophecy effect.

B) pluralistic ignorance.

C) confirmation bias.

D) the fundamental attribution error.

E) cognitive dissonance.



Janine has always hated the color orange. However, once she became a student at Princeton, she began to wear a lot of orange Princeton Tiger clothing. The discomfort caused by her long-standing dislike of the color orange and her current ownership of so much orange-and-black-striped clothing is known as

A) cognitive dissonance.

B) contradictory concepts.

C) conflicting motives.

D) opposing cognitions.

E) inconsistent ideas.



After your school’s football team has a big win, students in the halls can be heard saying “We are awesome.” The next week, after the team loses to the last-place team in the league, the same students lament that “They were terrible.” The difference in these comments illustrates

A) the fundamental attribution error.

B) self-serving bias.

C) the self-fulfilling prophecy effect.

D) the false consensus effect.

E) conformity.



Which of the following is the best example of prejudice?

A) Billy will not let girls play on his hockey team

B) Santiago dislikes cheerleaders.

C) Athena says she can run faster than anybody on the playground.

D) Mr. Tamp calls on boys more often than girls.

E) Ginny thinks all Asians are smart.



Neural transmission is often described as an electrochemical process. Which of the following is most directly involved in the electrical aspect?

A) the synapse

B) terminal buttons

C) hormones

D) myelin

E) neurotransmitters



When first born, humans’ dominant sense is

A) taste.

B) smell.

C) touch.

D) seeing.

E) hearing



Ryan suffers from nearly constant, low-level arousal of his autonomic nervous system. Ryan is most likely to be classified as suffering from


B) major depressive disorder.

C) hypochondriasis.

D) obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.




Pascale is interested in the processing strategies children use to learn new information. Pascale would best be classified as what type of psychologist?

A) sociocultural

B) clinical

C) cognitive

D) behaviorist

E) personality



Your girlfriend dumps you. “I knew you shouldn’t have gone out with her,” says your best friend, who has never uttered this sentiment before. Your friend’s comment best illustrates

A) overconfidence.

B) a theory.

C) hindsight bias.

D) response bias.

E) a hypothesis.



What kind of personality theorist would be most interested in the results of the MMPI?

A) psychoanalytic

B) humanistic

C) behaviorist

D) biological

E) trait



Light enters the eye through an opening in the

A) lens.

B) retina.

C) iris.

D) blind spot.

E) fovea



In people, rods, unlike cones,

A) are located in the center of the retina.

B) synapse with bipolar cells.

C) respond more quickly to bright colors.

D) have a lower absolute threshold for light.

E) are unable to detect motion.



To treat Zoe’s anorexia nervosa, her doctors put her on intravenous feeding tubes, tried to change her irrational belief that she was too fat, and discussed how her early family relationships may have contributed to her current problems. This approach would best be classified as

A) cognitive behavioral.


C) psychodynamic.

D) eclectic.

E) humanistic



Counterconditioning lies at the heart of which therapeutic approach?

A) flooding

B) systematic desensitization


D) token economies

E) stress inoculation



Which personality theory is criticized for having an unrealistically optimistic view of human nature?

A) cognitive

B) biological

C) humanistic

D) trait

E) psychoanalytic



Which of the following is a key difference between the experimental method and naturalistic observation?

A) Experiments yield qualitative data, whereas naturalistic observation yields quantitative data.

B) Naturalistic observation involves surveys, whereas experiments measure behavior.

C) Naturalistic observation takes place in the field, whereas experiments take place in a lab.

D) Researchers can exercise greater control over experiments than in naturalistic observation.

E) Experiments can yield statistically significant results and naturalistic observation cannot.



According to humanistic psychologists, psychological disorders are most likely caused by

A) neurochemical imbalances.

B) unhealthy attributional styles.

C) learned associations.

D) unfulfilled needs.

E) genetic predispositions.



Antonia has a cat. The first time she sees a rabbit, she calls it a cat. Her mistake is due to the process of

A) discrimination.

B) generalization.

C) accommodation.

D) assimilation.

E) habituation.



The somatic nervous system is part of the

A) central nervous system.

B) peripheral nervous system.

C) autonomic nervous system.

D) parasympathetic nervous system.

E) sympathetic nervous system.



Which part of the brain is the newest in an evolutionary sense?

A) pons

B) cerebral cortex

C) forebrain

D) reticular formation

E) hypothalamus



Which of the following disorders responds best to cognitive behavioral therapy?

A) disorganized schizophrenia

B) bipolar disorder

C) dissociative identity disorder

D) catatonic schizophrenia

E) major depressive disorder



Which structure is found in the inner ear?

A) hammer

B) basilar membrane

C) tympanic membrane

D) pinna

E) auditory canal



What type of psychologist would assert that a key motivation for people is the desire to spread their genetic material?

A) cognitive

B) evolutionary

C) humanistic

D) psychodynamic

E) behavioral



Four-year-old Kate positions herself squarely in front of all the other kids to watch a magician. Piaget would attribute this to Kate’s

A) egocentrism.

B) lack of object permanence.

C)inability to conserve.

D) animism.

E) artificialism



Jamie has trouble with her printer, but she has learned that if she turns it off for a minute and restarts her computer, it usually starts working again. Last Thursday, the printer ran out of paper. Jamie didn’t notice and, after turning the computer and printer on and off a few times, became very frustrated. Jamie’s printer problems on Thursday are most clearly a result of

A) belief bias.

B) low experiential intelligence.

C) divergent thinking.

D) functional fixedness.

E) mental set.



The brainstem is comprised of the

A) forebrain andRAS.

B) hindbrain and midbrain

C) cerebellum and cerebrum.

D) right and left hemispheres.

E) cortex and the limbic system.



The limbic system plays an important role in

A) maintaining balance.

B) regulating emotion.

C) monitoring arousal.

D) processing sensory information.

E) planning for the future.



Erikson’s initiative versus guilt stage is most closely related to Freud’s

A) oral stage.

B) anal stage.

C) phallic stage.

D) latency period.

E) adult genital stage



Lupe has been dating Craig for a few months. She’s attracted to him and has fun with him, but she can’t stand his friends or his family. Lupe’s conflict would best be classified as

A) an approach-approachconflict.

B) an approach-avoidance conflict.

C) an avoidance-avoidance conflict

D) a multiple approach-avoidance conflict.

E) Lupe does not have a conflict



Ani believes that her attitudes and behavior play a central role in what happens to her. Such a belief is likely to be associated with

A) a strong superego.

B) low self-esteem.

C) low self-efficacy.

D) an internal locus of control.

E) an extraverted personality.



Sal meets Petunia for the first time. She is outgoing and funny. He walks away with the opinion that Peturnia is a fun person, whereas in actuality Petunia is temporarily gleeful because she just won the lottery. Sal’s opinion that Petunia is funny is best explained by

A) the mere-exposure effect.

B) self-serving bias.

C) equipotentiality.

D) the fundamental attribution error.

E) cognitive dissonance



Alyssa presents one group of shoppers with an advertisement for milk that is 99 percent fat free and another group of shoppers with an advertisement for milk that is 1 percent fat. What is Alyssa most likely testing?

A) representativeness heuristic

B) confirmation bias

C) schema

D) mere-exposure effect

E) framing



Coach Perry is training Lana to be the kindergarten soccer team’s goalie. Coach Perrystarts by rolling the ball to Lana slowly so she can stop it; he gradually begins to roll the ball faster and to different parts of the goal, all the while praising her successful attempts. The technique Coach Perry is using is called

A) the law of effect.

B) the partial reinforcement effect.

C) shaping.

D) second-order conditioning.

E) a token economy.



Which part of the brain was thought to play the most important role in the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion?

A) thalamus

B) hippocampus

C) medulla

D) association areas

E) hypothalamus



Learned helplessness is most likely to be directly related to

A) the Barnum effect.

B) self-serving bias.

C) an external locus of control.

D) unconditional positive regard.

E) an Oedipal complex.



Which of the following has been linked to a deficit of dopamine?

A) major depressive disorder

B) autism

C) Parkinson’s disease

D) Alzheimer’s disease

E) schizophrenia



Runners in a park were found to pick up their pace when another runner came into view; this finding illustrates the phenomenon of

A) social facilitation.

B) conformity.

C) deindividuation.

D) norms.

E) roles



En route to the brain, information from the two eyes’ retinas crosses at the

A) optic nerve.

B) optic chiasm.

C) fovea.

D) lateral geniculate nucleus.

E) basal ganglia



A lesson from Janis’s research on groupthink is that

A) unanimity is important.

B) small groups function better than large ones.

C) groups function well under pressure.

D) it is important for people to voice dissent.

E) homogeneous groups come to better decisions than diverse groups



Information from the optic nerve is initially processed in what part of the brain?

A) occipital lobe

B) hypothalamus

C) thalamus

D) hippocampus

E) cerebellum



Which theory of emotion are cognitive psychologists most likely to support?

A) social facilitation theory

B) two-factor theory

C) thalamic theory

D) James-Lange theory

E) opponent process theory



Which of the following psychologists would most likely agree with the following statement: Behavior is a result of the combination of reinforcers and punishers?

A) William James

B) Wilhelm Wundt

C) B. F. Skinner

D) Carl Rogers

E) Albert Bandura



A medication prescribed by a psychiatrist for major depression would most likely influence the balance of which of the following neurotransmitter?

A) serotonin

B) dopamine

C) acetylcholine

D) thorazine

E) adrenaline



Physiological reactions to surprise or shocks are most controlled by which of the following parts of the nervous system?

A) somatic nervous system

B) sympathetic nervous system

C) endocrine system

D) serotonin system

E) contralateral control



Which of the following structures in the eye is most specifically responsible for color vision?

A) rods

B) optic nerve

C) cornea

D) cones

E) lens



Turning up the volume on a music player changes which aspect of sound?

A) amplitude of the wave

B) frequency of the wave

C) pitch of the tone

D) transduction of the tone

E) energy of the sound



A research study establishes that most people can taste one gram of salt in one quart of water. Which of the following concepts is most closely related to the goal of this study?

A) difference threshold

B) absolute threshold

C) taste constancy

D) sensory adaptation

E) perceptual adaptation



A musician’s ability to make a distinction between two very similar pitches depends on which of the following concepts?

A) absolute threshold

B) signal detection theory

C) bottom-up processing

D) difference threshold

E) frequency theory



Our ability to perceive depth depends primarily on what other perceptual abilities?

A) proximity and similarity

B) top-down processing and bottom-up processing

C) binocular and monocular cues

D) size and shape constancy

E) vestibular and kinesthic senses



An “A+” course grade is which kind of reinforcer?

A) primary

B) secondary

C) continuous

D) partial

E) interval



A researcher who concludes that “people who watch graphic violence in films are more likely to behave in violent ways than people who don’t” is probably researching which kind of learning?

A) latent

B) behavioral

C) observational

D) insight

E) abstract



In the three-box information processing model, what is the first place memories are stored?

A) short-term memory

B) eidetic memory

C) semantic memory

D) sensory memory

E) procedural memory



Most mnemonic devices (like learning the notes on the staff by memorizing the sentence “Every Good Boy Does Fine” and using the first letter of each word) are examples of which memory enhancement technique?

A) semantic encoding

B) potentiation

C) recognition

D) chunking

E) proactive interference



Seeing someone in line at the grocery store and remembering her or his name is an example of which kind of retrieval?

A) recognition

B) recall

C) episodic

D) semantic

E) retroactive



Abraham Maslow’s hierarachy of needs theorizes that each person is motivated by what?

A) desire to achieve in the eyes of others

B) satisfying needs from the next step in the hierarchy

C) primary (physical) and secondary (emotional) needs

D) homeostasis needs determined by our inner self

E) sex, thirst, hunger, and safety, in that order



Which of the following brain structures is most centrally involved in hunger motivation?

A) cerebellum

B) medulla

C) amygdala

D) hypothalamus

E) corpus callosum



Which kinds of motivations are best encourage positive behaviors to persist over long periods of time?

A) primary drives

B) secondary drives

C) achievement motivation

D) intrinsic motivation

E) extrinsic motivation



A researcher tests the problem solving skills of twenty 10-year-old, twenty 20-year-old, and twenty 30-year-old participants for a study on age and problem solving. What research method is this researcher using?

A) longitudinal

B) stage

C) developmental

D) cross-sectional

E) social-cognitive



Mary Ainsworth placed babies into a strange situation and observed the babies’ reactions when the parents left and then returned. What developmental concept was Ainsworth studying?

A) parenting style

B) motor development

C) infant reflexes

D) attachment

E) assimilation



Which developmental stage theory explained how experiences in infancy, childhood, adolscence, adulthood, and old age influence later personality characteristics?

A) Piaget’s cognitive development theory

B) Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory

C) Kohlberg’s moral development theory

D) Ainsworth’s social attachment theory

E) Harlow’s social attachment theory



What would Piaget test in order to determine whether a child is in the pre-operational or concrete operational stage of cognitive development?

A) object permanence

B) attachment

C) concepts of conservation

D) hypothesis testing

E) universal ethical principles



A pencil and paper personality test that places a person in one of several personality categories (such as extrovert/introvert, etc.) is based on which personality theory?

A) psychodynamic

B) trait

C) biological

D) behaviorist

E) social cognitive



Which of the following was an important technique used by Abraham Maslow and the humanistic psychologists during therapy?

A) defense mechanisms

B) factor analysis

C) unconditional positive regard

D) somatotype theory

E) secondary central dispositions



Which of the following kinds of personality theorists is the most likely to use a projective test?

A) social-cognitive

B) behaviorist

C) humanist

D) psychoanalyst

E) trait



A person who experiences flashbacks and nightmares after being involved in a serious car accident is likely to be diagnosed with which kind of psychological disorder?

A) somatoform disorder

B) dissociative disorder

C) schizophrenic disorder

D) personality disorder

E) anxiety disorder



Psychogenic amnesia and fugue states are both indications of which kind of psychological disorder?

A) schizophrenia

B) anxiety

C) mood

D) dissociative

E) personality



What is the principal tool used in all forms of psychotherapy?

A) talking to a patient

B) cognitive/behavioral interventions

C) biomedical/cognitive treatments

D) somatic therapies

E) secondary preventions



What kinds of factors are ignored or de-emphasized when people commit the fundamental attribution error?

A) dispositional

B) situational

C) social

D) cognitive

E) behavioral



What makes the psychoanalytic perspective different from the other psychological perspectives?

A) Psychoanalysts focus on the unconscious mind.

B) Psychoanalysis relies on the scientific method.

C) The process of psychoanalysis takes a long time and is focused on individuals, not groups.

D) The research psychoanalysis is based on primarily involves people with psychological disorders.

E) Psychoanalysis is the only perspective to involve treatment of psychological disorders.



Which of the following would a researcher need to use to determine if the difference between the mean scores of experimental and control groups was significant?

A) descriptive statistics

B) inferential statistics

C) field experiment

D) standard deviation

E) counterbalancing



Which sentence most accurately describes how neurons communicate?

A) Neurons communicate through physical contact between dendrites of one cell and the next cell.

B) Electricity passes between neurons, which carries messages between one neuron and another.

C) Chemicals travel from one neuron to another, influencing whether a neuron will fire or not.

D) Neurons send messages up the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex through neural reflexes.

E) Axons of neurons wrap around each other andcommunicate messages through hormones.



Someone with brain damage who has difficulty making the muscle movements needed to produce accurate speech might have damage to which area of the brain?

A) Wernicke’s area

B) hippocampus

C) Broca’s area

D) amygdala

E) Gage’s area



Which of the following structures is located at the most central and protected part of the brain?

A) somato-sensory cortex

B) cerebellum

C) cerebral cortex

D) Broca’s area

E) medulla



Which classical conditioning term best describes the following scenario: Later in his classical conditioning experiments, Ivan Pavlov’s dogs began to salivate whenever they heard any sound similar to a bell, such as a doorbell or someone accidentally clinking a water glass.

A) discrimination

B) spontaneous recovery

C) trace conditioning

D) generalization

E) unconditioned response



Knowledge of different categories of trees and where they grow best is an example of what kind of long-term memory?

A) episodic memory

B) semantic memory

C) procedural memory

D) eidetic memory

E) mnemonic memory



Which of the following is an example of an implicit memory?

A) describing the taste of the cake at your last birthday party

B) remembering how to tie a tie

C) recalling the name of your junior high school shop teacher

D) recognizing a celebrity

E) repeating the name of your first pet



Which of the following statements best describes an important difference between authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles?

A) Authoritarian parents use clear rules and enforce those rules consistently.

B) Parents using the authoritative style allow children to set and enforce their own rules in order to encourage independence.

C) Authoritative parents set and enforce rules, but explain and emphasize the rationale behind the rules.

D) Children who grow up in authoritative households are likely to be less independent as adults because they are not used to making decisions.

E) Authoritative parents set fewer rules than Authoritarian parents do, but they are more likely to enforce the rules with stricter punishments and more extensive rewards.



Someone who fails an important exam and reacts by spending more time studying in the library and less time socializing probably has which kind of locus of control?

A) internal

B) external

C) subconscious

D) unconscious

E) fundamental



Which of the following is the most complete list of the common characteristics of psychological disorders?

A) humanistic, behavioral, cognitive, biomedical

B) maladaptive, disturbing, unusual, irrational

C) anxiety, dissociative, affective, schizophrenic

D) disorganized, paranoid, catatonic, undifferentiated

E) dependent, narcissistic, histrionic, obsessive



A psychologist who advises a patient to write about his depressed thoughts and prescribes an antidepressant medication is using a combination of which of the following perspectives?

A) therapeutic and psychoanalytic

B) behavioral and socio-cultural

C) humanist and evolutionary

D) cognitive and biopsychology

E) structuralist and empiricist



Which research method would most likely be used to test the following hypothesis: People who conserve energy by buying hybrid cars are more likely to spend more money on organic foods.

A) experiment

B) naturalistic observation

C) case study

D) correlation

E) ethnography



A person suffering from a skin rash finds her pain is temporarily relieved by vigorous itching. She does not perceive the pain from the rash while she is itching, but the pain returns soon after she stops itching. Which concept best explains this temporary pain relief?

A) opponent-process theory

B) amplitude and frequency theories

C) transduction theory

D) gustation theory

E) gate-control theory



What is the major difference between classical and operant conditioning?

A) Operant conditioning was established well before operant conditioning.

B) Classical conditioning involves pairing stimuli, and operant conditioning involves pairing a response with a stimulus.

C) Operant conditioning is used to train organisms to perform specific acts, and classical conditioning is used to get organisms to stop performing specific acts.

D) Classical conditioning is more difficult to use but more effective than operant conditioning.

E) Operant conditioning involves biological responses, and classical conditioning involves rewards and punishments



What is the major difference between negative reinforcement and punishment?

A) Punishments are used with nonhuman animals, and negative reinforcements are used with humans.

B) Negative reinforcements are used in classical conditioning, and punishments are used in operant conditioning.

C) Punishments are primarily used when training an organism to perform a behavior and negative reinforcements are used to train an organism to stop performing a behavior.

D) Negative reinforcements are more effective than punishments but take longer to use.

E) Punishments decrease the frequency of a behavior and negative reinforcements increase the frequency of a behavior.



Which of the following is the best summary of Stanley Schacter’s two-factor theory of emotion?

A) An external event causes us to experience a specific emotion, and this emotion triggers certain physiological changes to occur.

B) When our body responds to an external event, our brain interprets the biological changes as a specific emotion.

C) Each person follows a predictable pattern of changes in response to stress, including alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.

D) Perceived control over life events reduces stress, which in turn cause specific emotions.

E) A combination of psychological changes and our cognitive interpretations combine to produce our emotional experiences.



Albert Bandura and the social-cognitive personality theorists believe that personality results from the interaction of which factors?

A) genetics, the unconscious, and social

B) id, ego, and superego

C) rewards, punishments, and reinforcements

D) traits, the environment, and behavior

E) humanism, behaviorism, and cognition