Political Science Exam 2
A political party can be defined as a combination of people and interests whose primary purpose is to ____. Each major party is ____ organized between state and local party organizations in terms of positions on party and policy issues.
gain control of government by winning elections; loosely
State- and local-level organizations operate within ____. The state- and local-levels of the two major parties are ____ to support national party policies.
their own spheres of influence, separate from one another; encourage
The signature roster for a primary election must state at the top of each page: “A person commits a criminal offense if the person knowingly votes in a primary election or participates in a convention of ____ after having voted in a primary election or participated in a convention of ____ during the same voting year.”
a party; another party
The main business of the precinct convention is to elect ____.
delegates to the county or senatorial district convention
The main business of county and senatorial district conventions is to elect ____.
delegates to the state convention.
In presidential election years, state convention delegates also elect delegates ____.
to the national presidential nominating convention
If adopted, a resolution (at a party’s precinct convention) will ____.
be submitted to a county or senatorial district convention for consideration.
____ held in heavily populated counties (such as Harris, Dallas, and Bexar) that have ____ state senatorial district.
Senatorial district conventions are; more than one
At a county or senatorial district convention, delegates may also submit proposed resolutions for consideration by the convention. If adopted, these resolutions then ____.
go to the party’s state convention for consideration.
At state conventions, delegates draft and adopt ____.
a party platform
In presidential election years, ____ convention delegates elect a slate of potential presidential electors to cast Texas’s electoral votes if the party’s ticket wins ____ of the state’s popular presidential vote.
state; a plurality
At ____ conventions, delegates write the rules that will govern the party.
At ____ conventions, delegates select members of the party’s state executive committee.
The presidential candidates whom the state’s delegates will support at the party’s national convention are mostly chosen according to ____. In many states other than Texas, parties select delegates to a national convention based on ____.
the results of the primary vote; a series of caucuses and not primary results
At ____ National Convention, a superdelegate is a party official or elected official who serves as a delegate to a party’s national convention. These delegates are ____ to adhere to the results of a state's primary or caucus.
Democratic; not required
The role of the permanent party organization is to ____.
recruit candidates, devise strategies, raise funds, distribute candidate literature and information, register voters, and turn out voters on Election Day.
A party’s ____ executive committee is composed of the party’s precinct chairs and the county chair and conducts ____ (but does not count the returns) and makes arrangements for holding conventions at its level.
Each of the precinct chairs on a party’s county executive committee is elected by their precinct’s ____. The county chair on a party’s county executive committee is elected by the county ____.
voters in the party’s primary; voters in the party’s primaries
In Texas, because of the dominant influences of the ____ political cultures, ____ tend to be more conservative than in other states.
individualistic and traditionalistic; both Democrats and Republicans
Conservatives are divided between ____ conservatives and ____ conservatives.
Liberals claim that government ____ to aid the unemployed, alleviate poverty, and guarantee equal rights for minorities and women. Liberals are more likely to ____ prayer in public schools, government subsidies for religious institutions, and any church involvement in secular politics.
is obligated; oppose
By the 1850s, the pro-Houston faction began referring to itself as the ____ Democrats (Unionists), whereas the anti-Houston faction called themselves the ____ Democrats.
During the period of Reconstruction (1865–1873) that followed the Civil War, the ____ controlled Texas politics. ____ also disenfranchised all southerners who had ever held a state or federal office before secession and who later supported the Confederacy.
Republican party; Congress
Opposed by former Confederates, governor Edmund J. Davis’s administration was ____ by most Anglo Texans. Davis’s ____ for reelection in 1873 occurred after there was a newly enfranchised electorate.
From the end of Reconstruction until the 1970s, Texas and other former Confederate states had ____ identity. The Populist (or People’s) Party formed in Texas as ____ party, winning local elections throughout the state.
a one-party; an agrarian-based
Although its ideas remained influential in Texas (for example, protection of common people by government regulation of ____), the Populist Party became less important after 1898. In large measure, the Populist Party declined because the Democratic Party adopted Populist issues, such as government regulation of ____.
railroads and banks; railroads
Which one of the following was not a method that political leaders adopted to disenfranchise people of color during the post-Reconstruction era (roughly 1890 to 1908)?
- a) whites-only primaries (See def. on 173)
- b) literacy tests (See def. on 172)
- c) grandfather clauses (See def. on 172)
- d) poll taxes (See def. on 172)
In 1948, Democratic President ____ ordered an end to racial segregation in the military. Republican presidential nominee Dwight D. Eisenhower ____ Texas in 1952 and 1956.
Harry Truman; successfully carried
By the ____, African-Americans nationwide constituted one of the most reliable blocs of Democratic voters—in part due to President ____ passage of the Voting Rights Act.
In the 1980s, GOP voters ____ candidates to the U.S. Congress, the Texas legislature, and county courthouse offices. During this period, GOP elected officials ____ to dominate local politics in suburban areas around the state.
growing number of; began
____ occurs when citizens have no allegiance to a political party and become independent voters.
____ occurs when members of one party shift their affiliation to another party.
Straight-ticket voting for all Democratic candidates on the general election ballot ____ as ____ Texans choose to remain “yellow-dog Democrats.”
has decline; fewer
Third parties’ successes can be better measured by their ability to ____.
make the public aware of their issues, persuade the major parties to adopt those issues, or force the major parties to bring those issues into a coalition.
In the 1970s, ____ elected a few candidates to ____ South Texas and forced the Democratic Party to begin to address Latino concerns.
La Raza Unida; local offices in
The ____ Party is a party that advocates minimizing government involvement at all levels while maximizing individual freedom and rights. As of mid-2014, ____ held local elective offices in the Lone Star State.
Libertarian; four Libertarians
The number of signatures that an independent candidate must gather to gain ballot access for a statewide office is “____ percent of the total vote received by all candidates for governor in the most recent gubernatorial general election.” This means that in 2014, an independent candidate was required to gather ____ signatures from registered voters who had not voted in either the Democratic or Republican primary elections or the primary runoff elections and who had not signed another candidate’s petition for that office that year.
____ benefitted by this requirement that an independent candidate gather so many signatures in order to gain ballot access.
The Major Parties
Although Mexican Americans played an important role in South Texas politics throughout the 20th century, not until the 1960s and early 1970s did they begin to have a major political impact at the state level. A central turning point was during the late 1960s with the creation of a third-party movement, ____. Founded in 1969 by ____ of Crystal City and others, the party fielded numerous candidates at the local and state levels and mobilized many Mexican Americans who had been politically inactive.
La Raza Unida Party; Jose Angel Gutierrez
Latinos’ voting behavior indicates that they respond to ____. For example, Sharon Navarro, professor at the University of Texas at San Antonio, states that Latinos in the 2016 elections were primarily concerned “about ____.”
candidates and issues; economics and jobs
When ____, an African American Democrat, was elected to a seat on the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals in ____, he was the first African American elected to statewide office in Texas.
Morris Overstreet; 1990
As demonstrated in recent electoral contests, approximately ____ of Texas’s African American citizens say they are Democrats, and ____ are declared Republicans.
80 percent; only 5 percent
The expanded presence of women in public office ____ public policy. Increased punishment for family violence and sexual abuse of children, together with a renewed focus on public education, ____ to the presence of women in policymaking positions.
is changing; can be attributed in large part
One chief reason for why fewer women than men seek elective public office is that women have difficulty in ____. As customs, habits, and attitudes regarding women change, opportunities for women in public service ____.
raising money to pay campaign expenses; are expanding
The Texas legislature passed laws prohibiting ____ to members of the legislature while they are in session; and in 1993 ____ establishing the Texas Ethics Commission.
political contributions; Texas voters approved a constitutional amendment
Restrictions on the amount of donations apply only to some ____. In 2003, the Texas legislature passed a law requiring officials of ____ with a population of more than 100,000 and trustees of school districts with enrollments of 5,000 or more to disclose the sources of their income, as well as the value of their stocks and their real estate holdings.
judicial candidates; cities
In addition, candidates for state political offices must identify employers and occupations of people contributing $____ or more to their campaigns and publicly report “cash on hand.” The measure also prohibits ____ from lobbying for clients before state agencies.
$500; current state legislators
Adopted after the Civil War (1861–1865), the ____ Amendments to the U.S. Constitution were intended to prevent denial of the right to vote based on race. Beginning in 1902, Texas required that citizens pay a special tax, called the poll tax, to become eligible to vote. The cost was $ ____, plus $0.25 that was optional with each county.
14th and 15th; $1.50
As a result of the poll tax, African American voter participation declined from approximately ____ in the 1890s to about ____ in 1906.
With ratification of the ____ Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in January 1964, the poll tax was abolished as a prerequisite for voting in ____ elections.
24th ; national
Then, in Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections, 383 U.S. 663 (____), the U.S. Supreme Court invalidated all laws that made payment of a poll tax a prerequisite for voting in ____ elections.
In white primaries, white Democrats nominated white candidates, who ____ the general elections. In 1923, the Texas legislature passed a law ____ African Americans from voting in Democratic primaries.
almost won; explicitly prohibiting
When the U.S. Supreme Court declared unconstitutional the 1923 law regarding white primaries, the Texas legislature enacted another law giving the ____ the power to decide who could participate in its primaries. The U.S. Supreme Court declared white primaries to be unconstitutional in Smith v. Allwright, 321 U.S. 649 (____).
executive committee of each party; 1944
One method of racial gerrymandering is “____” black voters ____.
packing; single district
One method of racial gerrymandering is “____” black voters to make them a minority in ____.
cracking; two or more districts
Racial gerrymandering that discriminates against minority voters is ____. Federal law ____ affirmative racial gerrymandering that results in the creation of “majority-minority” districts favoring election of more racial and ethnic minority candidates.
Federal courts have declared ____ unconstitutional where representation of ethnic or racial minorities is diminished. In 2009, a U.S. District Court judge ruled that the city of Irving’s method of choosing council members through ____ diluted the influence of Latinos and violated the 1965 Voting Rights Act.
at-large elections; citywide at-large elections
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 as renewed and amended by Congress abolishes the use of all ____ in voter registrations. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 as renewed and amended by Congress prohibits residency requirements of more than ____ for voting in presidential elections.
literacy test; 30 days
Which of the following is not a provision in the Voting Rights Act of 1965 as renewed and amended by Congress?
- b) prohibits residency requirements of more than 30 days for voting in presidential elections,
- c) requires states to provide some form of absentee or early voting,
- d) allows individuals (as well as the U.S. Department of Justice) to sue in federal court to request that voting examiners be sent to a particular area,
- e) requires states and jurisdictions within a state with a significant percentage of residents whose primary language is one other than English to use bilingual ballots and other written election materials as well as provide bilingual oral assistance.
Researchers at the U.S. Election Project at George Mason University estimated that 14 percent of the Lone Star State’s population was ineligible to vote in 2012 because of ____. Of all the socioeconomic influences on voting, ____ is by far the strongest.
citizenship status; education
Income ____ voter turnout. ____ have the lowest voter turnout of any age group.
strongly affects; Young people (ages 18-25)
The Texas Election Code ____ for voter registration centers in addition to those sites authorized by Congress under the motor-voter law. Texas citizens ____ apply for voter registration by mail.
provides; can also
____ conduct(s) primary elections. ____ prepare(s) general election and special election ballots.
Party officials; County clerk or elections administrators
Direct primary nomination permits party members to choose their candidates directly at ____. In Texas, ____ of the vote is required for nomination.
the polls; an absolute majority (more than 50%)
____ states use some form of closed primary. The Texas Election Code requires voters to identify their party affiliation ____, making Texas different.
Most; at the time of voting
In Texas’s general elections involving candidates for state, district, and county offices, the candidate who receives ____ in a contest is the winner. Special elections are called to vote on constitutional amendments and local bond issues, as well as fill interim vacancies in ____.
a plurality (the largest number of votes); legislative and congressional districts.
If no candidate obtains ____ in a special election, a runoff contest between the top ____ contenders must be conducted to determine a winner.
a majority; two
Newspapers have been particularly hurt by the loss of advertising to ____. ____ are the largest gatherers of news.
Internet sites; Newspapers
By the end of the 19th century, the publishing of newspapers had to become ____ because they could not afford to alienate either advertisers or subscribers. ____ stories present less chance for bias.
moderate and professional
A person with a ____ (Which is the answer? conservative OR liberal) ideology is more likely to cover: (1) welfare cheats and queens, (2) criminal activity and law and order, and (3) national defense. A person with a ____ (Which is the answer? conservative OR liberal) ideology is more likely to cover: (1) corporate abuse, (2) pollution, and (3) homelessness.
Ideological positions are ____. Newspapers generally ____ be dissected between those pages that are less biased and those that are more biased and have an agenda.
beliefs in search of supporting facts; can be
The federal Telecommunications Act of 1996 ____ the development of large chains of radio stations. ) Since 2009, the ____ has been a high-quality non-profit online newspaper that reaches a wide range of people, including most of the state’s political elite.
facilitated; Texas Tribune
Under current Texas law, government boards ____ discuss proposals and make their decisions in meetings open to the public. Under current Texas law, most reports, communications, and paperwork generated within executive agencies ____ citizens.
must; may be requested by
Research found ____ evidence that the powerful media persuaded the unsophisticated citizenry. Research evidence ____ the media can only reinforce and activate existing predispositions.
little; led in a different direction than
____ may indicate how important an issue is or which part of a situation is most important. ____ provides meaning or defines the central theme.
The ideological ____ between reporters and managers probably tends to ____ ideological or partisan bias.
There is ____ objective evidence of systematic ideological or partisan bias in the mainstream media. The proliferation of channels on satellite television and blogs on the Internet has led to increased niche journalism (also called narrowcasting) that appeals to a narrow audience, which often leads to ____ extreme ideological and partisan views.
Texas’s shield law protects (confidential) sources ____ to identify confidential sources in criminal cases if the journalist witnessed a felony. Today, ____ corporations own most of the national newspapers, newsmagazines, broadcast television networks, and cable news networks, as well as publishing houses, movie studios, telephone companies, Internet service providers, and entertainment firms.
but requires journalist; just six
The concentration of ownership has combined with the tendency of both newspapers and the electronic media to respond to their limited resources by relying on the ____ instead. ____ of the 952 U.S. television stations that air newscasts do not produce their news programs.
wire services; A quarter
A study by the Pew Trust found that ____ of the stories covered by blogs originated in the traditional media. In a survey of 118 local news directors, ____ report that advertisers try to tell them what to air and not to air—and they say the problem is growing.
99%; more than half