Activity 1: Anatomy of the Ear and Identifying Structures of the Ear

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1

The ear is a complex structure containing sensory receptors for what 2 functions?

  1. Hearing
  2. Equilibrium
2

The ear is divided in what 3 major areas?

  1. External ear
  2. Middle ear
  3. Internal ear
3

The external and middle ear structures serve the needs of what sense?

Hearing

4

The internal ear structures serve the needs of what 2 senses?

  1. Equilibrium
  2. Hearing
5

What is otitis media?

Infection of the middle ear

6

Why is otitis media a fairly common condition?

Because the mucosal membranes of the middle ear cavity and nasopharynx are continuous through the pharyngotympanic tube.

7

In cases where large amounts of fluid or pus accumulate in the middle ear cavity, what may be necessary?

Myringotomy or lancing of the eardrum.

8

Why is the internal ear referred to as the labyrinth?

It consists of a system of mazelike chambers.

9

What are the 2 main divisions of the internal ear?

  1. Bony labyrinth
  2. Membranous labyrinth
10

The bony labyrinth is a cavity in which bone?

Temporal bone

11

The bony labyrinth includes what 3 structures?

  1. Semicircular canals
  2. Vestibule
  3. Cochlea
12

The membranous labyrinth is a collection of what 2 general structures?

  1. Ducts
  2. Sacs
13

The membranous labyrinth is made up of what 4 specific structures?

  1. Semicircular ducts
  2. Utricle
  3. Saccule
  4. Cochlear duct
14

The bony labyrinth is filled with what fluid?

Perilymph

15

Is the perilymph aqueous or viscous?

Aqueous

16

The membranous labyrinth is filled with what fluid?

Endolymph

17

Is the endolymph aqueous or viscous?

Viscous

18

Where are the ducts and sacs of the membranous labyrinth suspended?

Perilymph

19

The cochlea contains the sensory receptors for what sense?

Hearing

20

What 2 structures of the bony labyrinth are involved in equilibrium?

  1. Vestibule
  2. Semicircular canals
21

How long is the cochlear duct?

About 3.8 cm long

22

The cochlear duct separates the perilymph-containing cochlear cavity into what 2 chambers?

  1. Scala vestibuli
  2. Scala tympani
23

The scala vestibuli is continuous with what “window?”

Oval window

24

The oval window seats what bone of the middle ear?

Stapes

25

The scala tympani is bounded what what membranous “window?”

Round window

26

The cochlear duct is the middle what? (Hint: Scala “something”)

Scala media

27

The scala media or cochlear duct is filled with what fluid?

Endolymph

28

The scala media supports what organ?

The spiral organ

29

The spiral organ contains the receptors for what sense?

Hearing

30

What are the 2 receptors for hearing that are found in the spiral organ of the scala media?

  1. Sensory hair cells
  2. Nerve endings of the cochlear nerve
31

The cochlear nerve is a division of what nerve?

Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)

32

What are the 4 structures of the external ear?

  1. Auricle
  2. Lobule (earlobe)
  3. External acoustic meatus
  4. Tympanic membrane (aka eardrum)
33

The auricle is made up of what type of cartilage?

Elastic cartilage

34

What are the 2 functions of the auricle?

  1. Collects sound waves
  2. Directs sound waves
35

The sound waves collected and directed by the auricle go into what external ear structure?

External acoustic meatus

36

The lobule completes the formation of what external ear structure?

Auricle

37

The external acoustic meatus is carved into what bone?

Temporal bone

38

What is the function of the external acoustic meatus?

Transmits sound waves

39

The external acoustic meatus transmits sound waves from what external ear structure to what external ear structure?

Transmits sound waves from the auricle to the tympanic membrane

40

The tympanic membrane separates what 2 regions of the ear?

  1. External ear
  2. Middle ear
41

The tympanic membrane vibrates at what type of frequency?

Vibrates at the same frequency as the sound waves hitting it

42

What is the function of the tympanic membrane?

Transmits vibrations

43

The tympanic membrane transmits vibrations to which general feature of the middle ear?

Auditory ossicles

44

The middle ear contains what chamber?

Tympanic chamber

45

The tympanic chamber is filled with what medium?

Air

46

The middle ear contains what 3 bones that make up the auditory osssicles?

  1. Malleus
  2. Incus
  3. Stapes
47

The “handle” of the malleus is attached to what membrane of the external ear?

Tympanic membrane

48

What are the 2 functions of the malleus?

  1. Transmits vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the incus
  2. Amplifies vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the incus
49

The incus articulates with what 2 bones of the middle ear?

Malleus and the stapes

50

What are the 2 functions of the incus?

  1. Transmits vibrations from the malleus to the stapes
  2. Amplifies vibrations from the malleus to the stapes
51

The stapes fits into what “window?”

Oval window

52

What are the 2 functions of the stapes?

  1. Transmits vibrations from the incus to the oval window
  2. Amplifies vibrations from the incus to the oval window
53

The oval window is located next to which bone of the middle ear?

Stapes

54

What are the 2 functions of the oval “window?”

  1. Transmits vibrations from the stapes to the perilymph of the scala vestibuli
  2. Amplifies vibrations from the stapes to the perilymph of the scala vestibuli
55

The pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube connects what region of the ear to what body part?

Connects the middle ear to the superior portion of the pharynx

56

What is the function of the pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube?

Equalizes pressure

57

The pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube equalizes pressure in what cavity with what type of air pressure?

Equalizes pressure in the middle ear cavity with the external air pressure

58

Why does the pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube equalizes pressure in the middle ear cavity with the external air pressure?

To enable the tympanic membrane to vibrate properly

59

What medial structure makes up the bony labyrinth of the internal ear?

Cochlea

60

What structure makes up the membranous labyrinth that is found within the cochlea?

Cochlea duct

61

What structure inside the cochlea duct contains the receptors?

Spiral organ

62

What is the function of the receptors found within the spiral organ?

Hearing

63

What middle structure makes up the bony labyrinth of the internal ear?

Vestibule

64

What 2 structures make up the membranous labyrinth that is found within the vestibule?

  1. Utricle
  2. Saccule
65

What structure inside the utricle and saccule contains the receptors?

Maculae

66

What are the 2 functions of the receptors found within the utricle and saccule?

  1. Static equilibrium
  2. Linear acceleration of the head (aka linear balance)
67

What lateral structure makes up the bony labyrinth of the internal ear?

Semicircular canals

68

What structures make up the membranous labyrinth that is found within the semicircular canals?

Semicircular ducts

69

What structure inside the semicircular ducts contains the receptors?

Ampullae

70

What is the function of the receptors found within the ampullae?

Rotational acceleration of the head (aka rotational balance)

71
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