Activity 2: Internal Anatomy of the Eye and Identifying Internal Structures of the Eye

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1

The wall of the eye is constructed of what 3 layers?

1. Fibrous layer

2. Vascular layer

3. Inner layer

2

How are the photoreceptor cells distributed on the neural retina?

Distributed over the entire neural retina, except where the optic nerve leaves the eyeball.

3

The site on the neural retina where there is no photoreceptor distribution at all is called what?

Optic disc (aka blind spot)

4

Where is the optic disc located?

In a weak spot in the fundus

5

Lateral to each blind spot and directly posterior to the lens is an area referred to as what?

Macula lutea

6

The macula lutea is dense in what type of photoreceptor cell?

Cones

7

In the center of the macula lutea is what structure?

Fovea centralis

8

The fovea centralis contains only what type of photoreceptor cell?

Cones

9

The fovea centralis is the area of greatest what?

Area of greatest visual acuity

10

Focusing for detailed color vision occurs where in the eye?

Fovea centralis

11

The lens divides the eye into which 2 segments?

1. Anterior segment

2. Posterior segment

12

The anterior segment contains what fluid?

Aqueous humor

13

The posterior segment contains what gel-like substance?

Vitreous humor

14

The anterior segment is further divided into what 2 chambers?

1. Anterior chamber

2. Posterior chamber

15

1. What separates the anterior and posterior chambers in the anterior segment?

2. How are the anterior and posterior chambers positioned in regard to the iris?

1. The iris.

2. The anterior chamber lies in front of the iris, and the posterior chamber lies behind the iris.

16

The aqueous humor is continually formed by what?

The ciliary processes of the ciliary body.

17

What are the 2 functions of the aqueous humor?

1. Maintain intraocular pressure of the eye.

2. Provides nutrients for the avascular lens and cornea.

18

The aqueous humor drains into what what?

The scleral venous sinus.

19

What are the 2 functions of the vitreous humor?

1. Provide internal reinforcement to the posterior part of the eyeball.

2. Keep the retina pressed against the wall of the eyeball.

20

When is the vitreous humor formed, and is it renewable like the aqueous humor (i.e. continually produced)?

Only formed before birth and is not renewable.

21

What are the 4 light-bending media of the eye?

1. Cornea

2. Lens

3. Aqueous humor

4. Vitreous humor

22

Anything that interferes with drainage of the aqueous humor increases what type of pressure?

Intraocular pressure

23

What 2 things happen when intraocular pressure reaches dangerously high levels?

1. The retina is compressed

2. The optic nerve is compressed

24

The compressing of the retina and optic nerve due to high intraocular pressure results in pain and what condition?

Glaucoma

25

Glaucoma can lead to what permanent disability?

Possible blindness

26

Cells of the retina include what 2 groups of cells (and also name their associated layers)?

1. Pigment cells of the outer pigment layer

2. Neurons of the neural layer

27

The inner neural layer is composed of how many major populations of cells?

3

28

In the inner layer, from outer to inner aspect, what are the 3 major populations of cells?

1. Photoreceptors

2. Bipolar cells

3. Ganglion cells

29

What are the specialized receptors for dim light?

Rods

30

Visual interpretation of rod activity is in what type of tones?

Gray tones

31

The cones are what type of receptors?

Color receptors

32

The cones permit high levels of what, and function only under what type of conditions?

Permit high levels of visual acuity, but they function only under conditions of high light intensity.

33

Due to the fact that cones only function under conditions of high light intensity, what is the consequence in moonlight?

No color vision.

34

The fovea centralis contains only cones, the macula lutea contains mostly cones, and from the edge of the macula lutea to the retina periphery, what happens to cone density?

It declines gradually.

35

What photoreceptors are most numerous in the retina periphery, and how is their density affected as the macula lutea is approached?

Rods are most numerous in the retina periphery, and their density decreases as the macula lutea is approached.

36

Light must pass through which 2 cell layers to reach and excite the rods and cones?

1. Ganglion cell layer

2. Bipolar cell layer

37

Receiving a light stimulus, describe what happens to the photoreceptors and the bipolar neurons?

Receiving a light stimulus, the photoreceptors undergo changes in their membrane potential that influence the bipolar neurons.

38

Once the bipolar neurons are stimulated by the changed membrane potential of the photoreceptors, which group of cells is activated next?

Ganglion cells

39

The axons of ganglion cells leave the retina through what nerve?

Optic nerve

40

The optic nerve is composed of what?

Fibers

41

In addition to the three major types of cells/neurons (i.e. photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, and ganglion cells), the retina also contains which 2 other types of cells/neurons?

1. Horizontal cells

2. Amacrine cells

42

Horizontal and amacrine cells are both what type of neuron?

Interneuron

43

The horizontal and amacrine cells/neurons play a roll in what type of processing?

Visual processing

44
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