Chapter 11

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Dental caries

oral cavity disease

causative agent: Streptococcus mutans

Transmission: if teeth are not cleaned regularly after food is ingested and three factors are present: a caries-susceptible tooth with a buildup of plaque; dietary carbohydrate (usually in the form of sucrose sugar); and acidogenic (acid-producing) bacterial species

symptoms: tooth decay, severe toothache pain and sensitivity; tooth abscess

treatment: depending on severity, filings, crown, root canal, or tooth extraction

prevention: good oral and dental hygiene to keep biofilm at a minimum between dental visits


what is plaque?

plaque is a essentially a biofilm, which is a deposit of dense gelatinous material consisting of salivary proteins, trapped food debris, and an enourmous mass of bacterial cells and their products

the acids in the plaque attack minerals in the tooth hard, outer surface, called the enamel, which eventually lead to a cavity, a tiny hole or lesion in the enamel


Trench mouth (Gingivitis)

Oral cavity disease

causative agents: Bacterioides, Fusobacterium, and Treponema species

transmission: Due to normal indigenous microbiota

symptoms: Swollen, soft, and red gums; bleeding gums

treatment: Cleaning of teeth to remove plaque

prevention: Practicing good oral hygiene; Regular dental examinations



illnesses in which bacterial toxins are ingested in food or water, for example the toxins causing botuism, staphylococcal food poisoning, and clostridial food poisoning



illness in which live bacterial pathogens in food and water are ingested and subsequently grow in the body, for example salmonellosis, shigellosis, and cholera


Staphylococcal food poisoning

intoxication disease

causative agent: Staphylococcus aureus

transmission: Foodborne from improperly handled or stored

toxin involved: enterotoxin

symptoms: abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, prostration, and diarrhea

treatment: none, recovery is rapid and complete in 1 to 2 days

prevention: practicing good hand hygiene and avoiding suspected foods

the incubation period is a brief 1 to 6 hours


Clostridial food poisoning

intoxication disease

causative agent: Clostridium perfingens

transmission: Foodborne from protein-rich foods inproperly handled or stored

toxin involved: enterotoxin

symptoms: severe abdominal cramping and watery diarrhea

treatment: recovery is rapid, often within 1 to 2 days, and antibiotic therapy is generally unnecessary

prevention: practicing good hand hygiene and avoiding infected foods

the incubation period is 8 to 24 hours


Gas gangrene

Intoxication disease

causative agent: Clostridium perfingens

transmission: through severe open wounds

toxins involved: exotoxins

symptoms: foul odor, and intense pain and swelling at the would site; initially the site turns a dull red, then green and finally a blue-black

treatment: antibiotics as well as debridement, amputation, or exposure in a hyperbartic oxygen chamber



Intoxication disease

causative agent: Clostridium botulinum

transmission: the endospores exist in the intestines of humans,fish, birds, and barnyard animals; they reach the soil through manure, organic fertilizers, sewage, and often cling to harvested products; when the spores enter the anaerobic environment of cans or jars, they often germinate to vegetative bacilli, and the bacilli produce the exotoxin; type E associated with the most foodborne transmission

symptoms: the botulinum neurotoxin causes neurological manifestations, including blurred vision, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing and chewing, and labored breathing; lims lose their tone and become flabby, called flaccid paralysis

treatment: because its a intoxication disease, antibiotics have no value, but if treated early antitoxins can be administered to neutralize the unbound toxins

prevention: heating foods before eating because the botulism toxin is destroyed in exposure to temperatures of 90 degrees C for 10 minutes


Bacillus food poisoning

intoxication disease

causative agent: Bacillus cereus

transmission: Foodborne through meats and cream sauces and also through starchy foods

toxin involved: both are enterotoxins

symptoms: meats or cream sauces causes diarrhea; starchy foods causes vomiting

treatment: generally recovery without treatment; in some cases fluid replacement is needed

prevention: avoiding suspect foods



infection disease

causative agent: Vibrio cholera

transmission: waterborne

toxin involved: enterotoxin

symptoms: Severe watery diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps, and dehydration

treatment: tetracycline; oral rehydration therapy

prevention: Practicing good hand hygiene and avoiding untreated water


Typhoid fever

infection disease

causative agent: Salmonella enteric serotype typhi

transmission: the five Fs: flies, food, fingers, feces, and fomites; foodborne from person sheding S. typhi; Foodborne and waterborne from contaminated sewage

toxin involved: endotoxin

symptoms: Bloody stools, abdominal pain, fever, lethargy, and delirium

treatment: ceftriaxone; If untreated, about 15% of people die.

prevention:avoid risky foods and drinks, and get vaccinated



infection disease

causative agent: Salmonella serotypes

transmission: foodborne in a wide variety of foods

symptoms: fever, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps

treatment: antibiotics

prevention: practicing good hand hygiene and food preparation



infection disease

causative agent: Shigella sonnei

transmission: foodborne and waterborne

toxin involved: Shiga enterotoxin

symptoms: Diarrhea, dysentary

treatment: antibiotics; fluid and salt replacement

prevention: practicing good hand hygiene



infection disease

causative agent: Listeria monocytogenes

transmission: Food contaminate with fecal matter; Contaminated animal foods

symptoms: headache, stiff neck, confusion, loss of balance, convulsions

treatment: Ampicillin

prevention: Practicing good hand washing; washing and preserving food properly



infection disease

causative agent: Campylobacter jejuni

transmission: Food borne from contaminated foods and water

toxins involved: enterotoxin and cytotoxin

symptoms: Diarrhea, fever

treatment: normally none, antibiotics therapy for severe or prolonged illnesses

prevention: practicing good hand hygiene and food preparation


Peptic ulcer (Gastric ulcer disease)

infections disease

causative agent: Helicobacter pylori

transmission: may be transmitted person to person though direct or indirect saliva contact

toxins involved: cytotoxin

symptoms: aching or burning pain in the abdomen, nausea, vomiting, bloating, bloody vomit or stools

treatment: antibiotics, such as amoxicillin, tetracycline, and clarithromycin; and acid suppression medications

prevention: practicing good hand hygiene; not sharing utensils or glasses



infection disease

causative agent: Escherichia coli

transmission: fecal-oral route

symptoms: inflammation of the stomach or intestines, usually with vomiting and diarrhea

treatment: antibiotics

gastroenteritis is a general term for a lot of varies form of disease that come arise from the fecal-oral route and share symptoms


Pseudomembrane colitis

Health-care associated infection disease

causative agent: Clostridium difficile

transmission: through the hands of heath-care personnel who have touched a contaminated surface or object

symptoms: diarrhea

treatment: being taken off the of the current antibiotic; anticlostridial antibiotics, such as metronidazole or vancomycin may be required for severe cases