The sense of smell or olfaction is known as
Olfaction receptors are located in
The nasal cavity on either side of the nasal septum.
The olfactory organ consiste of
- Olfactory epithelium
- Olfactory Cells
- Supporting Cells
- Basal Cells
- Laminar propia
an epithelium of the pseudostratified type that contains olfactory, receptor, nerve cells the axons of which extend to theolfactory bulb of the brain.
In the distal end of the Olfactory Epithelium, up to 20 Free Dendrites are found. These are know as
Area 1 - Olfactory Cilia extend into the surface layers of _________ where dissolved chemicals interact with receptors on the membrane surface.
Area 2 - The cell body of olfactory cilia (dendrites) lies between
1- supporting cells
Area 3 - The axons of these bipolar neurons form cranial nerve _________________________
1. Olfactory Nerve 1
The body cell, the olfactory cilia and the axons forming Cranial Nerve I form the cells called:
- Olfactory Cell's axons pass through the ________________ of the ___________________ of the ethmoid bone.
- olfactory foramina
- cribiform plate
The action between the Olfactory Cell's axons and the Olfactory Bulb cells is called:
Axons from olfactory bulb leave bulb and travel along the ______________________ to reach the _______________, the ________________, and portions of the___________________
1. olfactory tract
2 olfactory cortex
4. limbic system.
Columnar epithelial cells of the mucous membrane.
Some of the Supporting columnar cells have differentiated into _______________________
This cells probably produce New Olfactory Cells
A layer of loose connective tissue which holds the nasal epithelium to the bone.
Lamina Propia contains:
Nerves and blood vessels
Lamina Propia brings and removes
Oxigen and nutrients to the epithelium and removs carbon dioxide and waste products.
The sense of taste is called
Gusto = to taste
The sensory organs for taste are called
Taste Buds are found
- A lot of them on the tongue
- A few scattered on
- the soft palate
- inner surface of the cheeks
- epiglottis of the larynx
- Most of them are found in papillae
Peg-like projections of the tongue mucosa that make the tongue surface slightly abrasive.
To taste something, the material must be in a solution called:
A fluid used to suspend or dissolve a food source so it may be tasted, softened to swallow and begin carbohidrate digestion via amylase (enzyme).
The Gustatory Organ consists of:
- Taste Buds
- cranial nerve
- Types of Papilae
Taste Buds contain different cells
- Gustatory Cells
- Supporting Cells
- Basel Cells
Cells that help to produce new olfactory and supporting cells are
A specialized epithelium which forms the capsule of the taste bud and supports the olfactory cells are
- Taste Buds contain about 40 to 50 of this cells.
- Each cell contains hair-like process
- These cells are replaced about every 10 days.
The Cranial Neves that help to monitor taste buds are
- Cranial Nerve VII - Facial
- Cranial Nerve IX - Glossopharyngeal
- Cranial Nerve X - Vagus
The hair-like processes found in Gustatory Cells are called
Microvilli or Taste Hairs
The tongue has elevated areas called
There are 3 types of papillae
Slender, thread-like pointed projections which cover the anterior 2/3's of the tongue. They give the tongue a friction surface to move food around in your mouth
Knob-like or mushroom shaped papillae on the tip and sides of the tongue. Most of these papillae contain taste buds
Circular, doughnut shaped papillae arranged in an inverted "V" on the posterior portion of the tongue
The ability to detect light and form detailed images is called
This are the structures which support and protects the eyeballs called
i.e. eyebrows, eyelids, conjunctiva, lacrimal apparatus, extrinsic eye muscles
Also called Palpebrae, it is a skin flap which slides over the eyes periodically (blinking), they
- shade the eyeball,
- spread fluid over the surface f the eye
- protect the eyeball from debris and drying out.
The opening between the upper and lower eyelids is called
The two eyelids join at the corners of the eye, these areas are called
Medial and Lateral Canthus
- This are short stiff hairs embedded in the outer margins of the eyelids.
- They prevent dust and debris from falling into the eye.
- They will cause a blink reflex if they are touch
Also called Tarsal Glands
This glands secrete a lipid-rich substance which prevents the eyelids from sticking together.
The lacrimal Caruncle
Is a fleshy pad which contains glands which produce thick secretions which lubricate the eyeball.
Meibomian Glands (tarsal) may get bacteria infections producing a small lump called
In infection of the sebaceous gland of the eyelashes, a Meibomian Gland OR Sweat gland of the eye produces:
A painful localized swelling called a STY
This muscle is responsible for closing the eye
The Orbicularis Oculi
This muscle is responsible for raising the upper eyelid
A thin mucous membrane called the_________________ covers the inner surface of the eyelid and the anterior surface of the sclera.
The conjunctiva covering the inner surface of the eyelid is called
The conjunctiva covering the anterior surface of the sclera is called
The aparatus that produce, distributes, and removes tears
A pocket formed where the palpebral conjuctive meets the ocular conjunctiva is called
Fornix is connected to the Lacrimal Glands with about
10 to 12 ducts from Lacrimal Gland
- Located onthe superior-lateral aspect of the eyeball.
- Produce about 1ml of lacrimal fluid or tears per day
Tears are used to
- Reduce friction
- Remove debris,
- Prevent bacterial infections
- provide nutrients and oxygen to the conjunctiva.
- slightly alkaline
- contain an enzyme
The enzyme contained in tears bursts bacterial cell walls.
This action sweeps tear over the surface of the eyeball toward the lacrimal _____________,
1- Action = Blinking
2- Lacrimal Puncta
- Two small openings in the upper and lower eyelids at the medial canthus.
- These drain the tears into two lacrimal canal
There are two lacrimal canal called
- upper Superior Lacrimal Canal
- lower Inferior Lacrimal Canal
The canals deliver the tears to...
a lacrimal sac
Lacrimal sacs channel the tears into the
empties into the inferior meatus of the nasal cavity.
The visual organs which contain the receptors for vision are called
- Eyes are located in the two ________ of the skull.
- They are about ____" in diameter
Eyeballs share orbit with
- Extrinsic eye muscles
- Fat for padding and Insulation
- The lacrimal gland
- Blood vessels
- Several cranial nerves
Eyeballs parts are organized according the composition of each part, so each one belongs to one of these categories:
- Fibrous Tunic
- Vascular Tuni
- Neural Tunic
______________ Tunic is the outer-most layer of the eyeball which consists of ______________ and __________________________
Is a dense white fibrous coat (contains collagen and elastic fibers) which is tough enough to prevent:
- Maintain shape of eyeball
- Point of insertion for the six extrinsic muscles of the eye.
- Is a clear, transparent, avascular continuation of the sclera.
- Contains many free nerve endings which make it very
The junction between the sclera and the cornea is called the
Cornea transplants are posible due to the fact that...
there are no blood vessels to carry white blood cells to this area to attack the foreign tissue.
It is also called Uvea; contains:
- blood vessels,
- the intrinsic eye muscles and
Vascular Tunic includes:
- Ciliary Body
- It contain two intrinsic muscles of the eye
- It is pigmented on both anterior and posterior surfaces.
- The sphincter pupilae muscle contracts (pupil contracts) and dilator pupilae muscle contracts (Pupil dilates).
The central opening of the eye affected by the iris is called
Pupilary constrictor muscles
- When pupil contracts (smaller pupil diameter)
are the Circular Muscle Fibers (Sphinters)
Pupilary Dilator Muscles
- When Pupil dilates (larger pupil diameter)
are Radial muscle fibers that change the diameter of the central opening of the eye
This begins at the junction of the sclera and cornea and extends posteriorly to the Ora Serrata
The ciliary body contains:
- Ciliary Muscles
- Ciliary Processes
This are sphincter muscles which lays under the finger-like epithelial folds
the finger-like epithelial folds are known as
The ________________ ligaments of the lens extend from a capsule covering the lense to the ciliary process to hold the lens behind the ___________ and centered with the ____________.
- This is a heavily pigmented layer.
- Separates the fibrous and neural tunic
- This layer contain many capillaries to supply the retina with _______________ and ________________, and help it to remove ___________ products.
- Choroid Coat
- Oxigen and Nutrients
- This Tunic is where we find the Retina.
- Consists of an inner neural retina
- Contains the
- photoreceptors for vision
- an outer pigmented layer
- Is the inner-most layer of the eyeball
- It develops from an extension of the brain
- It contains:
- Millions of photoreceptors
- Other neurons involved in processing responses to light
- It consists of two layers:
- An outer pigmented layer
- Inner Neural layer
- Although the pigmente and neural layers are very close together, they are not fused.
From Retina, the only layer that plays a direct role in vision (image formation) is:
The Neural Layer
There are 3 zones of neurons in the neural retina:
- The innermost zone contains
- Photoreceptor Cells
- Photoreceptor Cells called:
- A shallow depression found on the posterior surface of the eye called FOVEA Centralis.
- A cover of the shallow fovea is called Macula
Photoreceptor cells RODS
Are the cells responsible for BLACK and WHITE vision, are somewhat cylindrical in shape and are specialized for dim light
Photoreceptor cells CONES
are somewhat conically shaped and function in COLOR Version.
They require more light than rods in order to function.
There are aproximately _____ million rods around the periphery of the retina, compared to around ___million cones located on the posteior retinal surface.
- 125 million rods
- 6 million cones
A shallow depression called __________________ can be found on the posterior surface of the eye
The area of the retina which covers the Fovea Centralis is called __________________, which is composed entirely of __________________.
- Macula Lutea
Critical Vision occurs on this Macula area due to the ____________________ which is always focused on the macula lutea.
Rods and Cones work in an area called
Neural Layer of Retina
The Neural Layer starts processing when
- The rods and cones synapse with
- about 6 million of Bipolar Cells
- Bipolar Cells synapse with
a layer of Ganglion Cells.
- The Axons from these Ganglion Cells exit the back of the eyeball to form the
Optic Nerve (Cranial Nerve 1).
- The area where these axons exit the eyeball is devoid of any ________________________. Because of this the area is called:____________________ or ____________________
- photoreceptors for vision
- Blind Spot or Optic Disc
The lens and ciliary body divide the interior of the eye into _________________ and _________________________.
anterior and posterior cavities
Anterior Cavity is divided into :
- Anterior Chamber
- Posterior Chamber
This chamber is located between the front of the iris and the cornea
This chamber is located between the suspensory ligaments and the back of the iris.
A fluid called __________________________ is secreted by the epithelium of the ciliary processes.
- ______ is a fluid is continually being produced to be replaced about every 90 minutes.
- Helps to nourish the lens and cornea.
- From the Anterior Chamber, this fluid is drained into the _________________, and then into the _____________.
- Aqueous Humor
- Sclera Venus Sinus
Another name for the Sclera Venus Sinus
Canal of Schlemm
The Intraocular Pressure is produced mainly by the
Excessive Intraocular Pressure is called______________, which causes degeneration of the _______________, causing ___________.
This a thick, jelly-like fluid called_________________, found in the __________________
- Vitreous Body
- Posterior Cavity
- This fluid helps to prevent the eyeball from collapsing
- Holds the retina flush against the interior of the eyeball.
- It is crystal clear and is not replaced naturally by the body.
Vitreous Body (Humor)
- It's primary function is to focus an image on the surface of the retina.
- In order to do this it ______________ must be continually reshaped.
To reshape the lens, there is a capsule around it where __________________ attach and work together with the ______________ muscles.
- Suspensory Ligaments
- Ciliary Muscles
The ciliary Muscle contracts and the tension on the suspensory ligaments is lessened resulting in the lens being allowed to be more Biconvex
The Ciliary muscle relaxes, and the tension on the suspensory ligaments increases resulting in the lens being pulled which reshapes the lens into a lesser biconvex shape.
- The process of reshaping the lens to compensate for near and far vision is called
- Also known as the process that increases the refractory poer of the lens
The visual goal of keeping the object being viewed focused on the retinal Fovea requires the action of ________________ to keep looking at the same image if the distance changes. For that, Somatic Motor Fibers of the Oculomotor nerves uses the extrinsic muscle (Medial Rectus) to fix that both eyes are directed toward the object being viewed. The closer that object, the greater the degree of ________________.
The vast majority of refractive problems are related to
- "Nearsighted"; this results if the eyeball is too deep (elongated) or the resting curvature of the lens is too great.
- It results - The image of a distant object will focus in front of the retina.
Farsighted; This results if the eyeball is too short (shallow) or the lens is too flat, the image of a distant object will focus behind the retina.
The gradual loss of accommodation with age reflects the lens's decreasing elasticity. The lens is non-accommodating a condition known as
What are called photoreceptors
The cones and rods of the retina
Photoreceptors (Cones and Rods) are sensitive to wavelength of
400 to 700 Nanometers
In the electromagnetic Spectrum, 400 to 700 Nanometers represent what is __________________; which is a small portion from the ____________________________.
- Visual Light
- electromagnetic spectrum
Rods and Cones are named due to
the shape of their outer segment.
This segments contain thousands of
This discs contain molecules called
Discs forming the Rods
are independent structures stacked together forming the cylindric shape of the Rod
Discs forming the Cones
are the result of the cell membrane being folded which results in these outer segments forming a blunt tip.
The outer segments of rods and cons contain thousands of discs which contain molecules called
The molecule called Visual Pigment is composed of a compound called
Protein Opsin, which bounds to to a pigment called Retinal
Retinal is sinthesized from
There are four types of opsin
- Used for rods - Results in black and white vision
- Other 3 are used by the Red, Green and Blue cones which result in color vision
Rhodopsin of rods
Breaks down quickly in the presence of bright light and reforms slowly.
Rhodopsin of the cones
breaks down quicly in presence of bright light and reforms quickly
The break down of Rhodopsin into retinal and opsin is called