Special Senses

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Olfactory, Gustation, Eye and Ear
updated 3 years ago by alesalinas1
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biology 2402
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1

The sense of smell or olfaction is known as

Olfaction

2

Olfaction receptors are located in

The nasal cavity on either side of the nasal septum.

3
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The olfactory organ consiste of

  1. Olfactory epithelium
    1. Olfactory Cells
    2. Supporting Cells
    3. Basal Cells
  2. Laminar propia
4

an epithelium of the pseudostratified type that contains olfactory, receptor, nerve cells the axons of which extend to theolfactory bulb of the brain.

Olfactory Epithelium

5

In the distal end of the Olfactory Epithelium, up to 20 Free Dendrites are found. These are know as

Olfactory Cilia

6

Area 1 - Olfactory Cilia extend into the surface layers of _________ where dissolved chemicals interact with receptors on the membrane surface.

1. Mucus

7

Area 2 - The cell body of olfactory cilia (dendrites) lies between

1- supporting cells

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Area 3 - The axons of these bipolar neurons form cranial nerve _________________________

1. Olfactory Nerve 1

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The body cell, the olfactory cilia and the axons forming Cranial Nerve I form the cells called:

Olfactory Cells

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Area 3

  • Olfactory Cell's axons pass through the ________________ of the ___________________ of the ethmoid bone.
  1. olfactory foramina
  2. cribiform plate
11

Area 4

The action between the Olfactory Cell's axons and the Olfactory Bulb cells is called:

synapse

12

Area 5

Axons from olfactory bulb leave bulb and travel along the ______________________ to reach the _______________, the ________________, and portions of the___________________

1. olfactory tract

2 olfactory cortex

3. hypothalamus

4. limbic system.

13

Columnar epithelial cells of the mucous membrane.

Supporting Cells

14

Some of the Supporting columnar cells have differentiated into _______________________

goblet cells.

15

This cells probably produce New Olfactory Cells

Basal Cells

16

A layer of loose connective tissue which holds the nasal epithelium to the bone.

Lamina Propia

17

Lamina Propia contains:

Nerves and blood vessels

18

Lamina Propia brings and removes

Oxigen and nutrients to the epithelium and removs carbon dioxide and waste products.

19

The sense of taste is called

Gustation

20

Gustation means

Gusto = to taste

21

The sensory organs for taste are called

Taste Buds

22

Taste Buds are found

  • A lot of them on the tongue
  • A few scattered on
    • the soft palate
    • inner surface of the cheeks
    • pharynx
    • epiglottis of the larynx
  • Most of them are found in papillae
23

Peg-like projections of the tongue mucosa that make the tongue surface slightly abrasive.

Papillae

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To taste something, the material must be in a solution called:

saliva

25

A fluid used to suspend or dissolve a food source so it may be tasted, softened to swallow and begin carbohidrate digestion via amylase (enzyme).

Saliva

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The Gustatory Organ consists of:

  1. Taste Buds
    • Cells
    • cranial nerve
  2. Types of Papilae
    • Papillae
27

Taste Buds contain different cells

  1. Gustatory Cells
  2. Supporting Cells
  3. Basel Cells
28

Cells that help to produce new olfactory and supporting cells are

Basal Cells

29

A specialized epithelium which forms the capsule of the taste bud and supports the olfactory cells are

Supporting Cells

30
  • Taste Buds contain about 40 to 50 of this cells.
  • Each cell contains hair-like process
  • These cells are replaced about every 10 days.

Gustatory Cells

31

The Cranial Neves that help to monitor taste buds are

  • Cranial Nerve VII - Facial
  • Cranial Nerve IX - Glossopharyngeal
  • Cranial Nerve X - Vagus
32

The hair-like processes found in Gustatory Cells are called

Microvilli or Taste Hairs

33

The tongue has elevated areas called

Papillae

34

There are 3 types of papillae

  1. Filiform
  2. Fungiform
  3. Circumvallate
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Slender, thread-like pointed projections which cover the anterior 2/3's of the tongue. They give the tongue a friction surface to move food around in your mouth

Filiform Papillae

36

Knob-like or mushroom shaped papillae on the tip and sides of the tongue. Most of these papillae contain taste buds

Fungiform Papillae

37

Circular, doughnut shaped papillae arranged in an inverted "V" on the posterior portion of the tongue

Circumvillate Papillae

38

The ability to detect light and form detailed images is called

Vision

39

This are the structures which support and protects the eyeballs called

Accessory Structures

i.e. eyebrows, eyelids, conjunctiva, lacrimal apparatus, extrinsic eye muscles

40

Also called Palpebrae, it is a skin flap which slides over the eyes periodically (blinking), they

  • shade the eyeball,
  • spread fluid over the surface f the eye
  • protect the eyeball from debris and drying out.

Eyelids

41

The opening between the upper and lower eyelids is called

Palpebral Fissure

42

The two eyelids join at the corners of the eye, these areas are called

Medial and Lateral Canthus

43
  • This are short stiff hairs embedded in the outer margins of the eyelids.
  • They prevent dust and debris from falling into the eye.
  • They will cause a blink reflex if they are touch

Eyelashes

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Also called Tarsal Glands

This glands secrete a lipid-rich substance which prevents the eyelids from sticking together.

Meibomian Glands

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The lacrimal Caruncle

Is a fleshy pad which contains glands which produce thick secretions which lubricate the eyeball.

46

Meibomian Glands (tarsal) may get bacteria infections producing a small lump called

Chalazion

47

In infection of the sebaceous gland of the eyelashes, a Meibomian Gland OR Sweat gland of the eye produces:

A painful localized swelling called a STY

48

This muscle is responsible for closing the eye

The Orbicularis Oculi

49

This muscle is responsible for raising the upper eyelid

Levator Palpabrae

50

A thin mucous membrane called the_________________ covers the inner surface of the eyelid and the anterior surface of the sclera.

Conjunctiva

51

The conjunctiva covering the inner surface of the eyelid is called

Palpebrae Conjunctiva

52

The conjunctiva covering the anterior surface of the sclera is called

Ocular Conjunctiva

53

The aparatus that produce, distributes, and removes tears

Lacrimal Aparatus

54

A pocket formed where the palpebral conjuctive meets the ocular conjunctiva is called

Fornix

55

Fornix is connected to the Lacrimal Glands with about

10 to 12 ducts from Lacrimal Gland

56
  1. Located onthe superior-lateral aspect of the eyeball.
  2. Produce about 1ml of lacrimal fluid or tears per day

Lacrimal Glands

57

Tears are used to

  • Reduce friction
  • Remove debris,
  • Prevent bacterial infections
  • provide nutrients and oxygen to the conjunctiva.
58

Tears are

  • watery
  • slightly alkaline
  • contain an enzyme
59

The enzyme contained in tears bursts bacterial cell walls.

Lysozyme

60

This action sweeps tear over the surface of the eyeball toward the lacrimal _____________,

1- Action = Blinking

2- Lacrimal Puncta

61
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  • Two small openings in the upper and lower eyelids at the medial canthus.
  • These drain the tears into two lacrimal canal

Lacrimal Puncta

62
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There are two lacrimal canal called

  1. upper Superior Lacrimal Canal
  2. lower Inferior Lacrimal Canal
63

The canals deliver the tears to...

a lacrimal sac

64

Lacrimal sacs channel the tears into the

nasolacrimal duct

65

Nasolacrimal Duct

empties into the inferior meatus of the nasal cavity.

66

The visual organs which contain the receptors for vision are called

EYE

67
  1. Eyes are located in the two ________ of the skull.
  2. They are about ____" in diameter
  1. Orbits
  2. 1"
68

Eyeballs share orbit with

  • Extrinsic eye muscles
  • Fat for padding and Insulation
  • The lacrimal gland
  • Blood vessels
  • Several cranial nerves
69

Eyeballs parts are organized according the composition of each part, so each one belongs to one of these categories:

  • Fibrous Tunic
  • Vascular Tuni
  • Neural Tunic
70

______________ Tunic is the outer-most layer of the eyeball which consists of ______________ and __________________________

  1. Fibrous
  2. Cornea
  3. Sclera
71

Is a dense white fibrous coat (contains collagen and elastic fibers) which is tough enough to prevent:

  1. Puncturing
  2. Maintain shape of eyeball
  3. Point of insertion for the six extrinsic muscles of the eye.

Sclera

72
  • Is a clear, transparent, avascular continuation of the sclera.
  • Contains many free nerve endings which make it very sensitive to
    • chemicals
    • touch
    • drying

Cornea

73

The junction between the sclera and the cornea is called the

Limbus

74

Cornea transplants are posible due to the fact that...

there are no blood vessels to carry white blood cells to this area to attack the foreign tissue.

75

It is also called Uvea; contains:

  • blood vessels,
  • the intrinsic eye muscles and
  • lymphatics

Vascular Tunic

76

Vascular Tunic includes:

  • Iris
  • Ciliary Body
  • Choroid
77
  • It contain two intrinsic muscles of the eye
  • It is pigmented on both anterior and posterior surfaces.
  • The sphincter pupilae muscle contracts (pupil contracts) and dilator pupilae muscle contracts (Pupil dilates).

Iris

78

The central opening of the eye affected by the iris is called

Pupil

79

Pupilary constrictor muscles

  • When pupil contracts (smaller pupil diameter)
  • Parasympathetic

are the Circular Muscle Fibers (Sphinters)

80

Pupilary Dilator Muscles

  • When Pupil dilates (larger pupil diameter)
  • Sympathetic

are Radial muscle fibers that change the diameter of the central opening of the eye

81

This begins at the junction of the sclera and cornea and extends posteriorly to the Ora Serrata

Ciliary Body

82

The ciliary body contains:

  • Ciliary Muscles
  • Ciliary Processes
83

Ciliary Muscles

This are sphincter muscles which lays under the finger-like epithelial folds

84

the finger-like epithelial folds are known as

Ciliary Processes

85

The ________________ ligaments of the lens extend from a capsule covering the lense to the ciliary process to hold the lens behind the ___________ and centered with the ____________.

  1. Suspensory
  2. Iris
  3. Pupil
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  • This is a heavily pigmented layer.
  • Separates the fibrous and neural tunic
  • This layer contain many capillaries to supply the retina with _______________ and ________________, and help it to remove ___________ products.
  1. Choroid Coat
  2. Oxigen and Nutrients
  3. Waste
87
  • This Tunic is where we find the Retina.
  • Consists of an inner neural retina
  • Contains the
    • photoreceptors for vision
    • an outer pigmented layer

Neural Tunic

88

Retina

  • Is the inner-most layer of the eyeball
  • It develops from an extension of the brain
  • It contains:
    • Millions of photoreceptors
    • Other neurons involved in processing responses to light
    • Glia
  • It consists of two layers:
    • An outer pigmented layer
    • Inner Neural layer
  • Although the pigmente and neural layers are very close together, they are not fused.
89

From Retina, the only layer that plays a direct role in vision (image formation) is:

The Neural Layer

90

There are 3 zones of neurons in the neural retina:

  1. The innermost zone contains
    • Photoreceptor Cells called:
      • Cones
      • Rods
  2. A shallow depression found on the posterior surface of the eye called FOVEA Centralis.
  3. A cover of the shallow fovea is called Macula
91

Photoreceptor cells RODS

Are the cells responsible for BLACK and WHITE vision, are somewhat cylindrical in shape and are specialized for dim light

92

Photoreceptor cells CONES

are somewhat conically shaped and function in COLOR Version.

They require more light than rods in order to function.

93
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There are aproximately _____ million rods around the periphery of the retina, compared to around ___million cones located on the posteior retinal surface.

  1. 125 million rods
  2. 6 million cones
94

A shallow depression called __________________ can be found on the posterior surface of the eye

Fovea Centralis

95

The area of the retina which covers the Fovea Centralis is called __________________, which is composed entirely of __________________.

  1. Macula Lutea
  2. Cones
96

Critical Vision occurs on this Macula area due to the ____________________ which is always focused on the macula lutea.

Visual Axis

97

Rods and Cones work in an area called

Neural Layer of Retina

98

The Neural Layer starts processing when

  1. The rods and cones synapse with
  • about 6 million of Bipolar Cells
99
  • Bipolar Cells synapse with

a layer of Ganglion Cells.

100
  • The Axons from these Ganglion Cells exit the back of the eyeball to form the

Optic Nerve (Cranial Nerve 1).

101
  • The area where these axons exit the eyeball is devoid of any ________________________. Because of this the area is called:____________________ or ____________________
  1. photoreceptors for vision
  2. Blind Spot or Optic Disc
102

The lens and ciliary body divide the interior of the eye into _________________ and _________________________.

anterior and posterior cavities

103

Anterior Cavity is divided into :

  1. _____________________________
  2. _____________________________
  1. Anterior Chamber
  2. Posterior Chamber
104

This chamber is located between the front of the iris and the cornea

Anterior Chamber

105

This chamber is located between the suspensory ligaments and the back of the iris.

Posterior Chamber

106

A fluid called __________________________ is secreted by the epithelium of the ciliary processes.

Aqueous Humor

107
  • ______ is a fluid is continually being produced to be replaced about every 90 minutes.
  • Helps to nourish the lens and cornea.
  • From the Anterior Chamber, this fluid is drained into the _________________, and then into the _____________.
  1. Aqueous Humor
  2. Sclera Venus Sinus
  3. Blood
108

Another name for the Sclera Venus Sinus

Canal of Schlemm

109

The Intraocular Pressure is produced mainly by the

Aqueous Humor

110

Excessive Intraocular Pressure is called______________, which causes degeneration of the _______________, causing ___________.

  1. Glaucoma
  2. Retina
  3. Blindness
111

This a thick, jelly-like fluid called_________________, found in the __________________

  1. Vitreous Body
  2. Posterior Cavity
112
  • This fluid helps to prevent the eyeball from collapsing
  • Holds the retina flush against the interior of the eyeball.
  • It is crystal clear and is not replaced naturally by the body.

Vitreous Body (Humor)

113
  • It's primary function is to focus an image on the surface of the retina.
  • In order to do this it ______________ must be continually reshaped.

Lens

114

To reshape the lens, there is a capsule around it where __________________ attach and work together with the ______________ muscles.

  1. Suspensory Ligaments
  2. Ciliary Muscles
115
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The ciliary Muscle contracts and the tension on the suspensory ligaments is lessened resulting in the lens being allowed to be more Biconvex

card image

Near Vision

116

The Ciliary muscle relaxes, and the tension on the suspensory ligaments increases resulting in the lens being pulled which reshapes the lens into a lesser biconvex shape.

Far Vision

117
  • The process of reshaping the lens to compensate for near and far vision is called
  • Also known as the process that increases the refractory poer of the lens

Accommodation.

118

The visual goal of keeping the object being viewed focused on the retinal Fovea requires the action of ________________ to keep looking at the same image if the distance changes. For that, Somatic Motor Fibers of the Oculomotor nerves uses the extrinsic muscle (Medial Rectus) to fix that both eyes are directed toward the object being viewed. The closer that object, the greater the degree of ________________.

  • Convergence
  • Convergence
119

Emmetropia

Normal Vision

120

The vast majority of refractive problems are related to

Eyeball Shapes

121

Myopia

  • "Nearsighted"; this results if the eyeball is too deep (elongated) or the resting curvature of the lens is too great.
  • It results - The image of a distant object will focus in front of the retina.
122

Hyperopia

Farsighted; This results if the eyeball is too short (shallow) or the lens is too flat, the image of a distant object will focus behind the retina.

123

The gradual loss of accommodation with age reflects the lens's decreasing elasticity. The lens is non-accommodating a condition known as

Presbyopia

124

What are called photoreceptors

The cones and rods of the retina

125

Photoreceptors (Cones and Rods) are sensitive to wavelength of

400 to 700 Nanometers

126

In the electromagnetic Spectrum, 400 to 700 Nanometers represent what is __________________; which is a small portion from the ____________________________.

  1. Visual Light
  2. electromagnetic spectrum
127

Rods and Cones are named due to

the shape of their outer segment.

128

This segments contain thousands of

Discs

129

This discs contain molecules called

Visual Pigments.

130

Discs forming the Rods

are independent structures stacked together forming the cylindric shape of the Rod

131

Discs forming the Cones

are the result of the cell membrane being folded which results in these outer segments forming a blunt tip.

132

The outer segments of rods and cons contain thousands of discs which contain molecules called

Visual Pigments

133

The molecule called Visual Pigment is composed of a compound called

Rhodopsin

134

Rhodopsin contain:

Protein Opsin, which bounds to to a pigment called Retinal

135

Retinal is sinthesized from

Vitamin A

136

There are four types of opsin

  1. Used for rods - Results in black and white vision
  2. Other 3 are used by the Red, Green and Blue cones which result in color vision
137

Rhodopsin of rods

Breaks down quickly in the presence of bright light and reforms slowly.

138

Rhodopsin of the cones

breaks down quicly in presence of bright light and reforms quickly

139

The break down of Rhodopsin into retinal and opsin is called

Bleaching