Campbell Biology Chapter 40 Key Terms

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1

Anatomy

The structure of an organism.

2

Physiology

The processes and functions of an organism.

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Interstitial fluid

The fluid filling the spaces between cells in most animals.

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Components of Digestive System

Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, anus

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Main functions of Digestive System

Food processing (ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination)

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Components of Circulatory System

Heart, blood vessels, blood

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Main functions of Circulatory System

Internal distribution of materials

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Components of Respiratory System

Lungs, trachea, other breathing tubes

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Main functions of Respiratory System

Gas exchange (uptake of oxygen; disposal of carbon dioxide)

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Components of Immune and lymphatic system

Bone marrow, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, lymph vessels, white blood cells

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Main functions of Immune and lymphatic system

Body defense (fighting infections and cancer)

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Components of Excretory System

Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

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Main Functions of Excretory System

Disposal of metabolic wastes; regulation of osmotic balance of blood

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Components of Endocrine System

Pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, adrenal, and other hormone-secreting glands

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Functions of Endocrine System

Coordination of body activities (such as digestion and metabolism)

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Components of Reproductive System

Ovaries or testes and associated organs

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Main functions of Reproductive System

Reproduction

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Components of Nervous System

Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs

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Main functions of Nervous System

Coordination of body activities; detection of stimuli and formulation of responses to them

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Components of Integumentary System

skin and its derivatives (such as hair, claws, skin glands)

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Main functions of Integumentary System

Protection against mechanical injury, infection, dehydration; thermoregulation

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Components of Skeletal System

Skeleton (bones, tendons, ligaments, cartilage)

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Main Functions of Skeletal System

Body support, protection of internal organs, movement

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Components of Muscular System

Skeletal muscles

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Main functions of Muscular System

Locomotion and other movement

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Epithelial tissue

Sheets of tightly packed cells that line organs and body cavities as well as external surfaces.

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Connective tissue

Animal tissue that functions mainly to bind and support other tissues, having a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix.

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fibroblasts

A type of cell in loose connective tissue that secretes the protein ingredients of the extracellular fibers.

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macrophages

A phagocytic cell present in many tissues that functions in innate immunity by destroying microbes and in acquired immunity as an antigen-presenting cell.

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Cuboidal epithelium

With diceshaped cells specialized for secretion, makes up the epithelium of kidney tubules and many glands, including the thyroid gland and salivary glands.

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Simple columnar epithelium

The large, brick-shaped cells are often found where secretion or active absorption is important. For example, lines the intestines, secreting digestive juices and absorbing nutrients.

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Simple squamous epithelium

The single layer of platelike cells, functions in the exchange of material by diffusion. This type of epithelium, which is thin and leaky, lines blood vessels and the air sacs of the lungs, where diffusion of nutrients and gases is critical.

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Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Consists of a single layer of cells varying in height. In many vertebrates, it is ciliated cells that forms a mucous membrane that lines portions of the respiratory tract. The beating cilia sweep the film of mucus along the surface.

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Stratified squamous epithelium

Multilayered and regenerates rapidly. New cells formed by division near the basal lamina push outward, replacing cells that are sloughed off. This epithelium is commonly found on surfaces subject to abrasion, such as the outer skin and the linings of the mouth, anus, and vagina.

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loose connective tissue

The most widespread connective tissue in the vertebrate body, binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in place. Gets its name from the loose weave of its fibers, which include all three types. It is found in the skin and throughout the body.

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fibrous connective tissue

Dense with collagenous fibers. It is found in tendons and in ligaments.

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bone

A connective tissue consisting of living cells held in a rigid matrix of collagen fibers embedded in calcium salts.

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tendons

A fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.

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ligaments

A fibrous connective tissue that joins bones together at joints.

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blood

A connective tissue with a fluid matrix called plasma in which red blood cells, white blood cells, and cell fragments called platelets are suspended.

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adipose tissue

A connective tissue that insulates the body and serves as a fuel reserve; contains fat-storing cells called adipose cells.

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cartilage

A flexible connective tissue with an abundance of collagenous fibers embedded in chondroitin sulfate.

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skeletal muscle

A type of striated muscle that is generally responsible for the voluntary movements of the body.

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smooth muscle

A type of muscle lacking the striations of skeletal and cardiac muscle because of the uniform distribution of myosin filaments in the cells; responsible for involuntary body activities.

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cardiac muscle

A type of striated muscle that forms the contractile wall of the heart. Its cells are joined by intercalated disks that relay the electrical signals underlying each heartbeat.

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Neurons

A nerve cell; the fundamental unit of the nervous system, having structure and properties that allow it to conduct signals by taking advantage of the electrical charge across its plasma membrane.

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Nervous tissue

Tissue made up of neurons and supportive cells.

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glial cells (glia)

Cells of the nervous system that support, regulate, and augment the functions of neurons.

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hormones

In multicellular organisms, one of many types of secreted chemicals that are formed in specialized cells, travel in body fluids, and act on specific target cells in other parts of the body, changing the target cells’ functioning. They are thus important in long-distance signaling.

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regulator

An animal for which mechanisms of homeostasis moderate internal changes in a particular variable in the face of external fluctuation of that variable.

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conformer

An animal for which an internal condition conforms to (changes in accordance with) changes in an environmental variable.

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homeostasis

The steady-state physiological condition of the body.

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set point

In homeostasis in animals, a value maintained for a particular variable, such as body temperature or solute concentration.

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stimulus

In feedback regulation, a fluctuation in a variable that triggers a response.

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sensor

In homeostasis, a receptor that detects a stimulus.

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response

(1) In cellular communication, the change in a specific cellular activity brought about by a transduced signal from outside the cell. (2) In feedback regulation, a physiological activity triggered by a change in a variable.

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negative feedback

A form of regulation in which accumulation of an end product of a process slows the process; in physiology, a primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a variable triggers a response that counteracts the initial change.

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positive feedback

A form of regulation in which an end product of a process speeds up that process; in physiology, a control mechanism in which a change in a variable triggers a response that reinforces or amplifies the change.

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circadian rhythym

A physiological cycle of about 24 hours that persists even in the absence of external cues.

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acclimatization

Physiological adjustment to a change in an environmental factor.

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thermoregulation

The maintenance of internal body temperature within a tolerable range.

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endothermic

Referring to organisms that are warmed by heat generated by their own metabolism. This heat usually maintains a relatively stable body temperature higher than that of the external environment.

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ectothermic

Referring to organisms for which external sources provide most of the heat for temperature regulation.

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radiation

The emission of electromagnetic waves by all objects warmer than absolute zero.

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evaporation

The process by which a liquid changes to a gas.

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convection

The mass movement of warmed air or liquid to or from the surface of a body or object.

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conduction

The direct transfer of thermal motion (heat) between molecules of objects in direct contact with each other.

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countercurrent exchange

The exchange of a substance or heat between two fluids flowing in opposite directions. For example, blood in a fish gill flows in the opposite direction of water passing over the gill, maximizing diffusion of oxygen into and carbon dioxide out of the blood.

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hypothalamus

The ventral part of the vertebrate forebrain; functions in maintaining homeostasis, especially in coordinating the endocrine and nervous systems; secretes hormones of the posterior pituitary and releasing factors that regulate the anterior pituitary.

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bioenergetics

(1) The overall flow and transformation of energy in an organism. (2) The study of how energy flows through organisms.

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metabolic rate

The total amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time.

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basal metabolic rate (BMR)

The metabolic rate of a resting, fasting, and nonstressed endotherm at a comfortable temperature.

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standard metabolic rate (SMR)

Metabolic rate of a resting, fasting, and nonstressed ectotherm at a particular temperature.

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torpor

A physiological state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases.

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hibernation

A long-term physiological state in which metabolism decreases, the heart and respiratory system slow down, and body temperature is maintained at a lower level than normal.