Activity 2: Identifying Internal Brain Structures

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1

Cerebral hemispheres

The outer part of the cerebral cortex contains what?

The cell bodies of cerebral neurons

2

Cerebral hemispheres

The deeper area of white matter is made up of what kind of tracts?

Fiber tracts or myelinated axons

3

Cerebral hemispheres

What are the 3 types of fiber tracts found in the deeper area of white matter?

1. Association tracts

2. Projection tracts

3. Commissures

4

Cerebral hemispheres

Association tracts connect what with what?

Two portions of the same hemisphere.

5

Cerebral hemispheres

Projection tracts connect what with what?

The cerebral cortex with the lower brain structures (i.e. spinal cord)

6

Cerebral hemispheres

Commissures connect what with what?

Features from one hemisphere to the other hemisphere

7

Cerebral hemispheres

What is the major commissure connecting the cerebral hemispheres?

Corpus callosum

8

Cerebral hemispheres

What is the fornix made out of?

Fiber tract

9

Cerebral hemispheres

The fornix is concerned with what 2 functions?

1. Olfaction functions

2. Limbic system functions

10

Cerebral hemispheres

The septum pellucidum separates what 2 things in the cerebral hemispheres?

The two lateral ventricles of the cerebral hemispheres

11

Cerebral hemispheres

In addition to the gray matter of the cerebral cortex, there are also several clusters of neuron cell bodies called ____?

Nuclei

12

Cerebral hemispheres

The nuclei are located where?

Deep within the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres.

13

Cerebral hemispheres

Which important group of cerebral nuclei flank the lateral and third ventricles?

Basal nuclei, or basal ganglia.

14

Cerebral hemispheres

Which 2 cuts allow you to see the basal nuclei?

1. Coronal cut

2. Transverse cut

15

Cerebral hemispheres

What is the function of the basal nuclei?

Involved in regulating voluntary motor activities.

16

Cerebral hemispheres

What are the 3 most important parts of the basal nuclei?

1. caudate nucleus

2. putamen

3. globus pallidus

17

Cerebral hemispheres

The corona radiata is made up of what type of fibers?

Projection fibers

18

Cerebral hemispheres

The corona radiata combines with sensory fibers traveling to the somatosensory cortex to form what type of capsule?

Internal capsule

19

Cerebral hemispheres

The internal capsule is composed of what material?

Fibrous material

20

Cerebral hemispheres

Why do the thalamus, the basal nuclei, caudate, and putamen have a striped appearance?

The internal capsule passes through them all.

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Cerebral hemispheres

Why are the thalamus, basal nuclei, caudate, and putamen called the striatum?

They have a striped appearance due to the internal capsule passing through them all.

22

Diencephalon

What are the 3 major internal structures of the diencephalon?

1. thalamus

2. hypothalamus

3. epithalamus

23

Diencephalon

The thalamus consists of two lobes of what matter and laterally enclose which ventricle of the brain?

Consists of two lobes of gray matter and laterally encloses the third ventricle of the brain.

24

Diencephalon

Which structure connects the two thalamic lobes and bridges the 3rd ventricle?

Interthalamic adehsion aka intermediate mass

25

Diencephalon

What is the function of the thalamus?

Integrates and relays sensory impulses to the cortical sensory areas

26

Diencephalon

Once the thalamus sends sensory impulses to the cortical sensory areas, what 2 things happen to the impulses?

They are localized and interpreted.

27

Diencephalon

What connects the third ventricle with the lateral ventricle on the same side?

Interventricular foramen

28

Diencephalon

What makes up the floor and the inferolateral walls of the third ventricle?

Hypothalmus

29

Diencephalon

What are the 5 functions of the hypothalmus?

1. Regulate body temperature

2. Regulate water balance

3. Regulate fat metabolism

4. Regulate carbohydrate metabolism

5. Regulate drives (i.e. sex, hunger, thirst)

30

Diencephalon

The pituitary gland hangs from the anterior floor of the hypothalamus by what?

infundibulum

31

Diencephalon

Where does the pituitary gland rest?

In the (hypophyseal fossa of the) sella turcica

32

Diencephalon

Why is the term basal ganglia misleading?

Ganglia are PNS structures.

33

Diencephalon

Describe where the mammillary bodies may be found in regard to the pituitary gland?

They are posterior to the pituitary gland

34

Diencephalon

What is the function of the mammillary bodies (Hint: relay stations)?

Act as relay stations for olfaction

35

Diencephalon

What makes up the roof of the third ventricle?

epithalamus

36

Diencephalon

What is the most dorsal portion of the diencephalon?

epithalamus

37

Diencephalon

What are 2 important structures in the epithalmus that are also found in the third ventricle?

1. Pineal gland

2. Choroid plexus

38

Brain stem

The cerebral aqueduct travels through which part of the brain stem?

The midbrain

39

Brain stem

The cerebral aqueduct connects which 2 ventricles?

1. Third ventricle

2. Fourth ventricle

40

Brain stem

What are the 3 openings in the fourth ventricle?

1. Two lateral apertures

2. One median aperture

41

Brain stem

What is the function of the two lateral and one median apertures?

Act as openings for cerebrospinal fluid to circulate into the subarachnoid space from the fourth ventricle

42

Cerebellum

The cerebellum is composed of how many hemispheres?

Two

43

Cerebellum

Each hemisphere of the cerebellum is composed of how many lobes?

Three

44

Cerebellum

What are the 3 lobes in each of the cerebellum's hemisphere?

1. Anterior lobe

2. Posterior lobe

3. Deep flocculonodular lobe

45

Cerebellum

The three lobes in each of the cerebellum's hemisphere are connected by what midline lobe?

Vermis

46

Cerebellum

How is the cerebellum similar to the cerebrum?

It has an outer cortical area with gray matter and an inner area of white matter.

47

Cerebellum

What is the treelike branching of the cerebellar white matter?

Arbor vitae

48

Cerebellum

What are the 3 functions of the cerebellum?

1. controls unconscious coordination of skeletal muscle activity

2. balance

3. equilibrium

49

The brain and spinal cord are covered and protected by three membranes of what?

Meninges

50

The meninges are made out of what type of tissue?

Connective tissue

51

What is the outer most meninx?

The dura mater.

52

The dura mater of the brain is comprised of how many layers?

2 layers

53

Which layer of brain dura mater is attached to the inner surface of the skull?

The periosteal layer of the brain dura mater

54

The periosteal layer of the brain dura mater forms what covering?

Periosteum

55

Which layer of the brain dura mater forms the outer most brain covering? And what about the inner most layer of the dura mater?

Outermost: Periosteal layer of the brain dura mater

Innermost: Meningeal layer of the brain dura mater

56

The meningeal layer of the brain dura mater is continuous with what mater of the spinal cord?

With dura mater of the spinal cord

57

In how many places are the brain dural layers not fused?

3 places

58

In the 3 places in which the brain dural layers are not fused, how is the brain secured to structures inside the cranial cavity?

The inner membrane of the brain dura mater extends inward to form a septum that secures the brain to structures inside the cranial cavity.

59

What is the extension of the inner membrane of the brain dura mater that dips into the longitudinal fissure between the cerebral hemispheres?

falx cerebri

60

What is the function of the falx cerebri?

Attaches the brain to the crista galli of the ehthmoid bone by dipping into the longitudinal fissure between the cerebral hemispheres.

61

Once the falx cerebri dips into the longitudinal fissure between the cerebral hemispheres to attach the brain to the crista galli of the ehthmoid bone, which cavity is created?

Superior sagittal sinus

62

What is the function of the superior sagittal sinus?

Collect blood draining from the brain tissue.

63

What are 2 other important inward folds of the inner membrane of the brain dura mater?

1. Falx cerebelli

2. Tentorium cerebelli

64

The falx cerebelli separates what 2 features of the cerebellum?

Separates the two cerebellar hemispheres.

65

The tentorium cerebelli separates what 2 major brain regions?

1. Cerebrum

2. Cerebellum

66

What is the middle meninx?

The arachnoid mater of the brain.

67

The arachnoid mater of the brain is partially separated from the dura mater by what?

By the subdural space.

68

Threadlike projections bridge what space of the arachnoid mater and attaches the arachnoid mater to what innermost meninx?

Bridges the subarachnoid space of the arachnoid mater and attaches the arachnoid mater to the pia mater.

69

Is the pia mater highly vascular?

Yes.

70

How does the pia mater cling to the brain surface?

Clings tenaciously to the surface of the brain.

71

The subarachnoid space is filled with what fluid?

Cerebrospinal fluid

72

What are specialized projections of the arachnoid tissue that protrude through the dura mater?

Arachnoid granulations

73

What is the function of the arachnoid granulations?

Allow the CSF to drain back into venous circulation

74

The arachnoid granulations allow CSF to drain back into the venous circulation via what sinuses (i.e. give a specific example as well)?

Via the superior sagittal sinus and other dural venous sinuses.

75

Meningitis is inflammation of what?

Inflammation of the meninges.

76

Why is meningitis especially dangerous?

Because of the intimate association between the brain and meninges.

77

When infection spreads to the neural tissue of the brain itself, what disease may now develops?

Encephalitis

78

How is meningitis diagnosed?

By taking a sample of CSF via a lumbar puncture from the subarachnoid space.

79

CSF is similar to what in composition?

plasma

80

CSF is continually formed by what?

Choroid plexuses

81

What are choroid plexuses structurally?

Capillary knots

82

What is the function of CSF in the brain?

Form a water cushion that protects the brain tissue against blows to the head.

83

Within the brain, CSF circulates from the lateral ventricles into the third ventricle through what?

Interventricular foramina

84

CSF then circulates from the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle through what?

Cerebral aqueduct of the midbrain

85

CSF enters the subarachnoid space through what in the fourth ventricle?

Through the three foramina

86

After CSF enters the subarachnoid space, how does it help the brain and the spinal cord?

Bathes the outer surfaces of the brain and spinal cord.

87

How does the CSF return to the blood in the dural venous sinuses?

Via the arachnoid granulations.

88

Obstructed drainage or circulation of CSF is due to what 2 causes?

1. Tumors

2. Anatomical deviations

89

Under abnormal conditions, what can obstructed drainage or circulation of CSF cause on the brain?

Exerts pressure on the brain

90

Increasing pressure that is exerted on the brain due to obstructed CSF drainage or circulation can cause what in adults?

Can cause neurological damage in adults.

91

1. In infants, what is the diagnosis of a gradually increasing head?

2. Why can the infant's head still expand?

1. Hydrocephalus

2. The infant's skull is still flexible and contains fontanelles.

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