Activity 1: Identifying External Brain Structures and The Human Brain

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1

What are the 2 divisions of the nervous system?

1. Central nervous system (CNS)

2. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

2

The CNS consists of what 2 body parts?

1. Brain

2. Spinal cord

3

What is the function of the CNS?

Interprets incoming sensory information

4

The CNS interprets sensory information in what 2 ways?

1. Based on the sensory information

2. Based on past experience

5

The PNS is made up of what 4 body features?

1. Cranial nerves

2. Spinal nerves

3. Ganglia

4. Sensory receptors

6

What are the two major subdivisions of the PNS?

1. Sensory portion

2. Motor portion

7

1. The sensory portion of the PNS consists of what type of fibers?

2. What is the function of the sensory portion of the PNS?

1. Nerve fibers

2. conduct impulses from sensory receptors toward the CNS

8

1. The motor portion of the PNS consists of what type of fibers?

2. What is the function of the motor portion of the PNS?

1. Nerve fibers

2. conduct impulses away from the CNS

9

The motor portion of the PNS is broken into what 2 divisions?

1. Somatic division (aka voluntary system)

2. Autonomic nervous system (ANS)

10

What is the function of the somatic division of the PNS's motor portion?

Controls the skeletal muscles

11

The ANS division of the PNS's motor portion controls what 3 body features?

1. Smooth muscles

2. Cardiac muscles

3. Glands

12

During embryonic development, the CNS first makes its appearance as what?

Neural tube

13

By the 4th week, after the formation of the neural tube, what begins to form?

the brain

14

The human brain, by the 4th week, forms as an expansion of which region of the neural tube?

anterior or rostral end (the end toward the head)

15

Shortly after the brain begins to form on the 4th week, the brain is further split into what 3 regions?

1. Forebrain (prosencephalon)

2. Midbrain (mesencephalon)

3. Hindbrain (rhombencephalon)

16

After the forebrain (prosencephalon), midbrain (mesencephalon), and the hindbrain (rhombencephalon) develop, the remainder of the neural tube becomes what?

The spinal cord

17

The central canal of the neural tube enlarges in 4 regions of the brain, forming what?

1. Lateral ventricle (left)

2. Lateral ventricle (right)

3. Third ventricle

4. Fourth ventricle

18

Cerebral hemispheres

What are the most superior portion of the brain?

Cerebral hemispheres

19

Cerebral hemispheres

The surface of the cerebral hemispheres is thrown into elevated ridges of tissue called what?

Gyri (gyrus-singular)

20

Cerebral hemispheres

The gyri are then separated by shallow grooves called what and deeper grooves called what?

Shallow grooves called sulci (sulcus-singular) and deeper grooves called fissures

21

Cerebral hemispheres

What is the single deep fissure that divides the cerebral hemispheres?

Longitudinal fissure

22

Cerebral hemispheres

What sulcus divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe?

Central sulcus

23

Cerebral hemispheres

What sulcus divides the temporal lobe from the parietal lobe?

Lateral sulcus

24

Cerebral hemispheres

Which sulcus divides the occipital lobe from the parietal lobe?

Parieto-occipital sulcus

25

Cerebral hemispheres

Why would you not be able to find the parieto-occipital sulcus from an external view?

It is not visible externally.

26

Cerebral hemispheres

What are the 5 lobes of the cerebral hemispheres?

1. Frontal lobe

2. Parietal lobe

3. Occipital lobe

4. Temporal lobe

5. Insula lobe

27

Cerebral hemispheres

1. What is the fifth, not-so-common, lobe of the cerebral hemispheres?

2. The fifth lobe is covered by portions of what 3 lobes?

1. Insula lobe

2. Covered by portions of the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes

28

Cerebral hemispheres

The cell bodies of cerebral neurons involved in important brain functions are found ONLY in what area?

The cerebral cortex

29

Cerebral hemispheres

The cerebral cortex is composed of what matter type, and is found how directionally in regards to the cerebrum?

Composed of gray matter and is the outermost layer of the cerebrum.

30

Cerebral hemispheres

The deeper cerebral white matter is composed of what?

Myelinated fibers bundled into tracts (aka bundles of myelinated axons).

31

Cerebral hemispheres

What is the function of the cerebral white matter?

Carry impulses to or from the cortex

32

Cerebral hemispheres

The cerebral hemispheres, embryologically, is part of what primary brain vesicle?

Forebrain

33

Diencephalon

The diencephalon, embryologically, is part of what primary brain vesicle?

Forebrain

34

Diencephalon

The olfactory bulbs are the synapse point of what cranial nerve?

Cranial nerve 1

35

Diencephalon

The optic nerves are included in what cranial nerve?

Cranial nerve 2

36

Diencephalon

At the optic chiasma, the medial fibers of what nerves cross over?

Optic nerves

37
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Diencephalon

What are the 7 externally visible features that mark the floor of the diencephalon? (Hint: Look at picture)

1. Olfactory bulbs

2. Olfactory tracts

3. Optic chaisma

4. Optic nerves

5. Optic tract

6. Pituitary gland

7. Mamillary bodies

38

Brain stem

Typically, what are the 3 parts of the brain stem?

1. Midbrain

2. Pons

3. Medulla oblongata

39

Brain stem

1. Are cerebral peduncles part of the brain stem?

2. What are cerebral peduncles made up of and where are they located?

3. What is the function of the cerebral peduncles?

1. Yes

2. Fiber tracts in the midbrain

3. Connect the pons below with the cerebrum above

40

Brain stem

1. What do pons mean?

2. The pons consist of what 2 fiber tracts?

1. "bridge"

2. motor and sensory fiber tracts

41

Brain stem

What is the function of the motor and sensory fiber tracts of the pons?

Connect the brain with the lower CNS centers

42

Brain stem

What is the lowest brain stem region?

medulla oblongata

43

Brain stem

The medulla oblongata is also primarily composed of what?

fiber tracts

44

Brain stem

The decussation of pyramids, is a crossover point for what?

Major motor tracts (pyramidal tracts)

45

Brain stem

The decussation of pyramids can be found on the surface of what portion the brain stem?

Medulla oblongata

46

Brain stem

The major motor tracts crossing over at the decussation of pyramids descend from what area and feeds into what area?

Descends from the cerebrum to the spinal cord

47

Brain stem

The medulla oblongata houses vital autonomic centers involved in the control of 3 autonomic actions?

1. Control of heart rate

2. Control of respiratory rhythm

3. Control of blood pressure

48

Brain stem

The medulla oblongata houses involuntary centers involved in the control of 2 involuntary actions?

1. Vomiting

2. Swallowing

49

Cerebellum

The cerebellum looks like what vegetable?

Cauliflower

50

Cerebellum

The cerebellum projects how and from what lobe?

Projects dorsally from under the occipital lobe of the cerebrum

51

Cerebellum

In what 3 ways are the cerebellum and cerebrum similar?

1. Has two major hemispherse

2. Has a convoluted surface

3. Has outer cortex made up of gray matter and an inner region of white matter

52

Cerebellum

The corpora quadrigemina contains what 2 sets of prominences?

1. Superior colliculi

2. Inferior colliculi

53

Cerebellum

The superior and inferior colliculi are what type of centers?

Visual reflex centers

54
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Identify the blanks.

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55

The primary somatosensory cortex receives information from what 2 receptors and where are the respective receptors?

1. Sensory receptors in the skin

2. Proprioceptors in the skeletal muscles, joints, and tendons

56

What is the function of the primary visual cortex?

Receives visual information from the retina

57

What is the function of the primary auditory cortex?

Receives sound/hearing information from receptors in the internal ear

58

What is the function of the olfactory cortex?

Receives information from olfactory receptors in the nasal cavity

59

What is the function of the primary motor cortex?

Conscious control of voluntary movement of skeletal muscles

60

What is the function of Broca's area?

Controls the muscles involved in speech production

61
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62

The prosencephalon or forebrain develops into what 2 secondary brain vesicles?

1. Telencephalon

2. Diencephalon

63

The mesencephalon or midbrain develops into what secondary brain vescicle? (Hint: same)

Mesencephalon

64

The rhombencephalon or hindbrain develops into what 2 secondary brain vescicles?

1. Metencephalon

2. Myelencephalon

65

The telencephalon develops into what adult brain structure?

Cerebrum

66

The diencephalon develops into what adult brain structure? (Hint: same)

diencephalon

67

The mesencephalon develops into what adult brain structure (or part of the brain stem)?

Midbrain

68

The metencephalon develops into what 2 adult brain structures? (Hint: one of them is part of the brain stem.)

1. pons

2. cerebellum

69

The myelencephalon develops into what adult brain structure (or what part of the brain stem?

medulla oblongata

70
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