Behavior Analysis Chapter 9,10,11,16

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1

Stimulus Control

The degree of correlation between the occurrence of a particular antecedent stimulus and the occurrence of a subsequent response.

2

SD (ess dee)

is a stimulus response in the presence of which a response will be reinforced (a cue that a particular response will pay off)

3

S-delta

a stimulus in the presence of which a response will not be reinforced (cue that a particular response will not pay off)

4

Stimulus Discrimination

Process by which we learn to emit a specific behavior in the presence of some stimuli and now in the presence of other stimuli

5

Stimulus Discrimination Training

Process of teaching stimulus discriminations

6

Controlling Stimuli

Stimuli that control behavior due to reinforcement in their presence and extinction in their absence (discriminative stimuli)

7

Stimulus Generalization occurs when...

becomes more probable in the presence of one stimulus or situations as a result of having been reinforced in the presence of another stimulus or situation

8

Why does stimulus Generalization occur?

1. Unlearned stimulus generalization

2. Learned stimulus generalization involving minimal physical similarity

9

Unlearned Stimulus Generalization

The likelihood of performing a behavior in a new situation if that situation is similar to the one in which we learned the behavior

10

Learned Stimulus Generalization

a. conceptual learning

b. learning of an equivalence class

11

Conceptual Learning

learned stimulus generalization due to common characteristics

12

Equivalence Class

a set of stimuli all of which have some physical characteristics in common

13

Conceptual Behavior

When an individual emits an appropriate response to all members of a stimulus class and does not emit that response to stimuli do not belong to that stimulus class

14

Stimulus Equivalence Class

A set of dissimilar stimuli where all members of the class control the same response (apple banana grapes = fruit)

15

Contextual Control

The general setting or context may alter the manner in which an individual response to particular stimuli.

16

Rule Governed Behavior

A rule describes a contingency of reinformenet

17

Fading

the gradual change over successive trials of a stimulus that controls a response, so that the response eventually occurs to a partially changed or completely new stimulus

18

Prompting

a stimulus introduced to control the desired behavior during the early part of a learning program and early part of a learning program and that is subsequently eliminated after the desired behavior has been strengthened

19

What are the types of prompts?

1. Instructor - Behavior Prompts

2. Environmental Prompts

3. Extra - Stimulus VS Within Stimulus

20

Instructor Behavior

Physical guidance, gestures, modeling prompts, verbal prompts

21

Environmental Prompts

Re-arranging the physical environment

22

Extra Stimulus VS Within Stimulus

Extra stimulus - something is added to the environment to make a correct response likely

Within Stimulus - an alternation in the characteristics of the SD or S-delta to make them more noticeable and therefore easier to discriminate

23

Behavior Chain/Stimulus Response Chain

A consistent sequence of stimuli and responses that occur closely to each other in time and in which the last response is typically followed by a reinforcer

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Backward Chaining

Constructs the chain in the reverse order from that in which the chain is performed

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Forward Chaining

the initial steps of the sequence are first, then teaches and looks together the first and second steps, then the first three steps until completion.

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Shaping steps

Reinforcement of closer and closer approximations

27

Fading steps

reinforcement the final desired response in the presence of closer and closer approximations to the final desired stimulus for that response

28

Chaining Steps

Reinforcing more and more of the specific stimulus response links.