Toxicology #2

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1

Toxin exposure during which of the following periods is likely to have the LEAST toxic effect on the developing fetus

  1. Preimplantation
  2. Organogenesis
  3. First Trimester
  4. Gastrulation
  5. Third Trimester

Third Trimester

2

All of the following are involved as mechanisms of reproductive toxicology EXCEPT:

  1. Hormone mimicking
  2. Enzyme inhibition
  3. Cytotoxicity
  4. Fibrosis
  5. Endocrine disrupting chemicals

Fibrosis

3

A teratogen can be defined as

  1. A xenobiotic or other factor which inhibits normal histamine release
  2. A chemical which induces carcinogenesis in adult respiratory organs
  3. A xenobiotic or other factor causing malformations
  4. A chemical which prevents lactation in females after birth
  5. A xenobiotic or other factor which causes placental detachment in pregnancy

A xenobiotic or other factor causing malformations

4

Which of the following periods has the least sensitivity to chemical exposures during development?

  1. Ectoderm, mesodermal, endodermal division
  2. Organogenesis
  3. Embryonic
  4. Implantation
  5. Fetal

Fetal

5

Reproductive toxicity does not encompass the reproductive potential of offspring

  1. True
  2. False

False

6

FAS or fetal alcohol syndrome is characterized by ___________ and ____________

  1. greater sensitivity in the third trimester, shortened limbs
  2. greater sensitivity in the first trimester, craniofacial anomalies
  3. greater sensitivity in the first trimester, cervical erosion
  4. greater sensitivity in the first trimester, shortened limbs

greater sensitivity in the first trimester, craniofacial anomalies

7

Female reproductive toxicity is associated with:

  1. Carcinogenesis
  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
  3. Age-related ovarian dysfunction
  4. A & B only
  5. A, B, and C

A, B, and C

8

All of the following statements regarding particle deposition and clearance are true EXCEPT:

  1. Large volumes of inspired air increase particle deposition in the airways
  2. Swallowing is an important mechanism of particle clearance
  3. Diffusion is important in the deposition of particles in the bronchial regions
  4. One of the main modes of the particle clearance is via mucociliary escalation
  5. Sedimentation results in deposition in the bronchioles

Diffusion is important in the deposition of particles in the bronchial regions

9

Pulmonary fibrosis is marked by which of the following?

  1. Increased compliance
  2. Elastase activation
  3. Decreased type III collagen
  4. Increased type I collagen

Increased type I collagen

10

Activation of what enzyme is responsible for emphysema?

  1. Elastase
  2. Antitrypsin
  3. Hyaluronidase
  4. Epoxide hydrolase
  5. Nonspecific protease

Elastase

11

Which of the following gases would be likely to pass all the way through the respiratory tract?

  1. SO2
  2. CO2
  3. NO2
  4. O3
  5. O2

SO2

12

Cytochrome P450 enzymes, like those found in the liver, play a role in respiratory defenses

  1. True
  2. False

True

13

Acute lung injury is mediated by all of the following mechanisms EXCEPT:

  1. type I to type II transformation in cells
  2. Cell necrosis
  3. Carcinogenesis
  4. Pulmonary edema
  5. Smooth muscle contraction

Carcinogenesis

14

Which of the following may enhance lung injury?

  1. Antioxidants (balance ROS | need to imbalance it by generating more ROS)
  2. TNF-a, a protein involved in the inflammatory response
  3. The formation of DNA adducts (genotoxicity)
  4. A and B are correct
  5. B and C are correct

B and C are correct

15

Carbon monoxide exerts its toxic effects via its interaction with which of the following?

  1. DNA polymerase
  2. Hemoglobin
  3. Actin
  4. Kinesin
  5. Microtubles

Hemoglobin

16

Pulmonary fibrosis often involves the _______ of ________ followed by the secretion of __________ by fibroblasts.

  1. Accumulation; macrophages; collagen
  2. Accumulation; macrophages; cartilage
  3. Accumulation; elastases; collagen
  4. Destruction, macrophages; collagen
  5. Destruction; elastases; cartilage

Accumulation; macrophages; collagen

17

Which method of deposition in the airway are asbestos fibers most likely to undergo?

  1. Diffusion of very large fibers
  2. Interception of very large fibers
  3. Sedimentation of very small fibers
  4. Both A and B
  5. Both B and C

Both B and C

18

Endogenous chemical

Domoic Acid

Limited repair mechanisms

Axonopathy

High metabolic demands of neurons

  1. Example of neurotoxicant
  2. Neurotoxicant found in marine organism
  3. Explain seriousness of nervous system toxicity
  4. Disease state of nervous system
  5. Causes susceptibility of nervous system to injury
19

Lead exposure in childhood is linked to:

  1. decreased IQ
  2. Gene expression alterations
  3. Delinquint behavior later in life
  4. A and B only
  5. A, B, and C

A, B, and C

20

In hypersensitivity, the first stage (known as _____) is considered to ________ an individual to/against an allergen.

  1. induction; defend
  2. elicitation; subsequently challenge
  3. induction; subsequently challenge
  4. elicitation; sensitize
  5. induction; sensitize

induction; sensitize

21

Direction harmful to the atmosphere in its original form

  1. sulfur oxide
  2. corticosteroids
  3. secondary air pollutant
  4. primary air pollutants
  5. ozone

Ozone

22

immunosuppression may be cause by which of the following:

  1. viruses
  2. tobacco smoke
  3. radiation
  4. pharmacological agents
  5. all of the above

all of the above

23

Haptens are linked to allergic asthma while proteins such as fungal spores are not.

  1. True
  2. False

False

24

MCS or multiple chemical sensitivity as an autoimmune response is the same as hypersensitivity immune response because in both types of responses:

  1. The response is usually systemic as opposed to localized
  2. An individual become sensitized and a response is elicited upon subsequent exposure
  3. There is a response against self
  4. A and B are correct
  5. A, B, and C are correct

A and B are correct

25

Asthma is more prevalent among adults, Caucasian and males than children, African americans and females according to the data we observed in class

  1. True
  2. False

False

26

______ ozone in man-made whereas ________ ozone is a natural, protective layer in atmosphere.

  1. tropospheric; stratospheric
  2. stratospheric; tropospheric

tropospheric; stratospheric

27

Which of the following is not characteristics of a type I hypersensitivity reaction?

  1. It is mediated by IgE
  2. It involves immune complex deposition in peripheral tissue
  3. It involves mast-cell degranulation
  4. Anaphylaxis is an acute, systemic a very severe type I hypersensitivity reaction
  5. It is usually mediated by performed histamine, prostaglandins and leukotrienes

It involves immune complex deposition in peripheral tissue

28

Industrial processes are the largest known source of air pollution.

  1. True
  2. False

False

29

which of the following type of hypersensitivity is NOT mediated by antibodies?

  1. Type I
  2. Type II
  3. Type III
  4. Type IV

Type IV

30

All of the following may be present with acute renal toxicity except:

  1. altered Ca2+ signaling
  2. Altered enzymatic activity
  3. Generation of reactive oxygen species
  4. Cytoskeletal dysfunction
  5. Steatosis

Steatosis

31

The Functional unit of the human kidney which processes (filters) blood in a stepwise fashion is the :

  1. renal medulla
  2. renal cortex
  3. nephron
  4. ureter
  5. urinary bladder

Nephron

32

With regard to inhalation, particle size is important. As particle size goes _______, concentration goes _______. Surface area of the particles collectively goes_______ when particle size goes ________.

  1. Down; up; down; up (decreasing diameter = increasing surface area)
  2. Up;up;down;down

Down; up; down; up (decreasing diameter = increasing surface area)

33
  1. Positive selection in autoummunity-Characterized by proliferation of cells which don’t recognize self
  2. Negative selection in autoimmunity- Characterized by killing of cells which recognize self
  3. T cells- play a role in autoimmunity

Characterized by proliferation of cells which don’t recognize self

Characterized by killing of cells which recognize self

Play a role in autoimmunity