Activity 2: Neuron Classification and Studying the Microscopic Structure of Selected Neurons

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1

On what 2 criteria may neurons be classified?

1. Structure

2. Function

2

Structurally, how may neurons be differentiated?

On their number of processes.

3

Based on structure, what are the 3 types of neurons?

1. Unipolar (aka pseudounipolar) neurons

2. Bipolar neurons

3. Multipolar neurons

4

Describe the number of processes from the cell body and their divisions (into further processes) in unipolar neurons.

One short process extending from the cell body divides into peripheral and central processes.

5

1. In unipolar neurons, the most distal portions of the peripheral process act as what?

2. The rest of the peripheral process and the central process act as what?

1. Receptive endings

2. Axon

6

Unipolar neurons are more accurately called what?

Pseudounipolar neurons.

7

Why are unipolar neurons more correctly called pseudounipolar neurons?

Because they are derived from bipolar neurons.

8

Nearly all neurons that conduct impulses toward the CNS are which type of neuron?

Unipolar

9

Bipolar neurons have how many processes attached to the cell body?

2 processes

10

Bipolar neurons are rare and typically found only as receptors of which 3 mucosa types?

1. Eye mucosa

2. Ear mucosa

3. Olfactory mucosa

11

The many processes in multipolar neurons are classified as what?

dendrites

12

Most neurons in the brain and spinal cord (CNS neurons) and those whose axons carry impulses away from the CNS fall into which neuron category?

multipolar neurons

13

Of pyramidal neuron cells of the cerebral cortex, Purkinje neuron cells of the cerebellar cortex, and dorsal root ganglion neuron cells, classify them into multipolar or unipolar neurons.

Multipolar: Pyramidal neuron cells, Purkinje neuron cells

Unipolar: Dorsal root ganglion neuron cells

14

What are the 3 functional categories of neurons?

1. Sensory or afferent neurons

2. Motor or efferent neurons

3. Interneurons

15

Describe the function of sensory or afferent neurons.

Carry impulses from sensory receptors outside the CNS towards it.

16

The sensory receptors of sensory or afferent neurons may be found in which 4 areas of the body?

1. viscera (internal organs)

2. skin

3. skeletal muscles

4. joints

17

The receptive endings of sensory neurons have specialized receptors that respond to what?

Specific changes in their immediate environment.

18

The cell bodies of sensory neurons are ALWAYS found in what and where?

In a ganglia outside the CNS.

19

Sensory or afferent neurons are typically classified as which group of neuron?

Unipolar neurons.

20

Describe the function of motor or efferent neurons?

Carry impulses away from the CNS.

21

Motor or efferent neurons carry impulses towards which 3 parts of the body?

1. Viscera (internal organs)

2. Body muscles

3. Glands

22

Motor or efferent neurons are most often classified as which group of neuron?

Multipolar neurons

23

The cell bodies of motor or efferent neurons are most often located where?

In the CNS.

24

Interneurons are found between which 2 groups of neurons?

1. Sensory or afferent neurons

2. Motor or efferent neurons

25

What is the function of interneurons?

Contribute to pathways that connect sensory and motor neurons.

26

The cell bodies of interneurons are ALWAYS located where?

in the CNS

27

Interneurons are always classified structurally as which group of neurons?

Multipolar neurons.

28

In the CNS, bundles of axons are called what?

Tracts

29

In the PNS, bundles of axons are called what?

Nerves

30

Nerves are wrapped in which type of tissue?

Connective tissue

31

Nerves connect the CNS with what 3 body periphery parts and vice versa?

1. Skeletal muscles

2. Glands

3. Skin

32

Like the functional classification of neurons, nerves are classified according to what?

The direction in which they transmit impulses.

33

Sensory or afferent nerves conduct impulses only toward what?

Toward the CNS

34

T/F. A few of the cranial nerves are pure sensory/afferent nerves.

True.

35

Motor or efferent nerves carry impulses only way from what?

Away from the CNS

36

The ventral roots of the spinal cord are classified functionally as which type of nerves?

Motor/efferent nerves.

37

Nerves carrying both sensory/afferent and motor/efferent fibers are functioally called which type of nerves?

Mixed nerves

38

Most nerves of the body, including all spinal nerves, are classified functionally as which type of nerves?

Mixed nerves

39

Within a nerve, each axon is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called what?

Endoneurium

40

What is the function of the endoneurium?

Insulate the axon it covers

41

Is the endoneurium the same as the myelin sheath?

No.

42

Differentiate the endoneurim and the myelin sheath.

The endoneurium is an additional sheath that surrounds the myeline sheath.

43

Groups of axons are bound by a coarser connective tissue called what?

Perineurium

44

Axons bounded by a perineurium are called what?

Fascicles

45

Fascicles that are bounded together by what fibrous connective tissue sheath?

Epineurium.

46

Fascicles bounded by an epineurium form what?

The cord-like nerve

47

In addition to the connective tissue wrappings, which 2 groups of vessels also serve the fibers that travel within a nerve?

1. Blood vessels

2. Nerve vessels

48
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1. What neuron cell type is it?

2. Identify the blanks.

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1. Pyramidal neuron

49
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1. What neuron cell type is it?

2. Identify the blanks.

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1. Purkinje neuron cell

50
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1. What neuron cell type is it?

2. Identify the blanks.

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1. Dorsal root ganglion neuron cell

51
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52
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53
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55

Where is one location where Purkinje neuron cells can be found?

Cerebellar cortex

56

Where is one location where Pyramidal neuron cells can be found?

Cerebral cortex