Microbial diseases of the skin and eyes

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Microbiology
Chapter 21
updated 4 years ago by babyruby
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1

vesicles

small fluid-filled lesions

2

bullae

vesicles larger than 1cm

3

macules

flat, reddened lesions

4

papules

raised lesions

5

enanthem

rash in the mucous membrane

6

exanthem

skin rash that arises from disease conditions

7

toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1)

superantigens that activates a lot of WBCs ate once

8

bacterial microbiota of the eye usually originate from

the skin and upper respiratory tract

9

staphylococci are gram positive bacteria that often grow in clusters

true

10

the majority of the skin microbiota consist of coagulase negative ___

staphylococcus epidermidis

11

almost all pathogenic strains of ____ produce coagulase

S. aureus

12

what can pathogenic S. aureus produce

enterotoxins

leukocidins

exfoliative toxin

13

Many strains of S. aureus produce penicillinase. What are they treated by

vancomycin

14

localized infections results from

S. aureus entering openings in the skin

15

folliculitis

pimple

16

abscess

localized region of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue

17

carbuncle

hard, round, deep inflammation of tissue under the skin

18

impetigo

highly contagious superficial skin infection caused by S. aureus in infants

19

toxemia

occurs when toxins enter the bloodstream. staphylococcal toxemias include scalded skin syndrome and toxic shock syndrome

20

streptococci

gram positive cocci that often grow in chains

classified according to their hemolytic enzymes and cell wall antigens

21

what are the most important pathogens to humans

Group A hemolytics

S. pyogenes

22

what are some skin infections caused by S. pyogenes

erysipelas (reddish patches)

impetigo (isolated pustules)

23

invasive group A beta hemolytic streptococci causes

severe and rapid tissue destruction

24

pseudomonads are gram positive rods

false

25

pseudomonads are aerobes found primarily in soil and water that are resistant to many disinfectants and antibiotics

true

26

Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces

endotoxin and several exotoxins

27

DIseases caused by P. aeruginosa include

otitis externa, respiratory infections, burn infections and dermatitis

28

infections have a characteristic blue-green pus caused by a pigment known as

pyocyanin

29

what is used to treat P. aeruginosa infections

quinolones

30

streptokinases

enzymes that dissolve blood clots

31

hyaluronidase

an enzyme that dissolves the hyalunoric acid in the connective tissue

32

Deoxyribonucleases

enzymes that degrade DNA

33

variola virius causes which two types of skin infections

variola major and minor

34

smallpox is transmitted by the ____ and the virus is moved to the skin via the ____

respiratory route; bloodstream

35

humans are not the only host of smallpox

false

36

smallpox has been eradicated as a result of a vaccination effort by the WHO

true

37

what virus is transmitted by the respiratory route and is localized in the skin cells causing a vesicular rash

varicella-zoster virus

38

complications of chickenpox include

encephalitis and reye's syndrome

39

after chickenpox, the virus can remain latent in nerve cells and subsequently activate as

shingles

40

shingles is characterized by a vesicular rash along the affected cutaneous sensory nerves

true

41

what is used to treat chickenpox

acyclovir

42

herpes simplex infection of mucosal cells results in

cold sores and ocassionally encephalitis

43

HSV-1 is transmitted primarily by

oral and respiratory routes

44

herpes encephalitis occurs when

herpes simplex viruses infect the brain

45

measles

caused by measles virus and transmitted by the respiratory route

46

vaccination provides effective long-term immunity for what

measles

47

after measles virus has incubated in the upper respiratory tract

macular lesions appear on the skind and koplik's spots appear on the oral mucosa

48

complications of measles include

middle ear infections

pneumonia

encephalitis

secondary bacterial infections

49

the rubella virus is transmitted by

the respiratory route

50

a red rash and light fever might occur in an infected person with rubella

true

51

congenital rubella syndrome can affect a fetus when

a woman contracts rubella during the first trimester of her pregnancy

52

damage from congenital rubella syndromes includes

stillbirth

deafness

eye cataracts

heart defects

mental retardation

53

fungi that colonize the outer layer of the epidermis cause

dermatomycoses

54

what causes ringworm/tinea

Microsporum

trichophyton

epidermophyton

55

cutaneous mycoses grow on

keratin-containing epidermis such as hair, skin, and nails

56

ringworm and athlete's foot are usually treated with

topical antifungal chemicals

57

how is cutaneous mycoses diagnosed

based on the microscopic examination of skin scrapings or fungal culture

58

___ causes infections of mucous membranes and is common cause of thrush and vaginitis

candida albicans

59

C. albicans are ____ that may proliferate when the normal bacterial microbiota are suppressed

opportunistic pathogen

60

what chemicals are used to treat candidiasis

topical antifungal

61

what causes scabies

by a mite burrowing and laying eggs in the skin

62

pediculosis is an infestation by

pediculus humanus

63

bacterial microbiota of the eye usually originate from

the kin and upper respiratory tract

64

Neonatal gonorrheal ophthalmia is caused by the _____ from an infected mother to an infant during its passage through the birth canal

Neisseria gonorrheae

65

all newborn infants are treated with an antibiotic to prevent neisseria and chlamydia infection

true

66

inclusion conjuctivitis is an infection of the conjunctiva caused by_____. It is transmitted to infants during birth and is transmitted in unchlorinated swimming water

chlamydia trachomatis

67

trachoma is caused by ___ scar tissue forms in the cornea

C. trachomatis

68

trachoma is transmitted by

hands, fomites, and flies

69

inflammation of the cornea is known as

keratitis

70

___ causes corneal ulcers

herpetic keratitis

71

what invades the central nervous system to cause herpetic keratitis

HSV-1

72

what is used to treat scabies

permethrin

73

pediculus humanus capitis

head louse

74

pediculus humanus corporis

body louse

75

what are the three genera of fungi involved in cutaneous mycosis

trichopyton

microsporum

epidermophyton

76

trichophyton

can infect hair, skin, or nails

77

microsporum

usually involves only the hair or skin

78

epidermophyton

affects only the skin and nails

79

tinea capitis

ringworm

80

tinea crusis

ringworm of the groin

81

tinea pedis

ringworm of the feet (athlete's foot)

82

tinea unguium

ringworm of the fingernails or toenails