Activity 1: Identifying Parts of a Neuron

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1

What is the master integrating and coordinating system?

Nervous system

2

What are the main function of the nervous system?

Monitoring and processing sensory information from the external environment and internal environment (i.e. the body).

3

What are the 2 primary divisions of the nervous system?

1. central nervous system (CNS)

2. peripheral nervous system (PNS)

4

The CNS consists of what 2 body parts?

1. Brain

2. Spinal cord

5

Describe the makeup of the PNS.

All nervous elements located outside the CNS

6

Nervous tissue is made up of what 2 cell types?

1. Neurons

2. Neuroglia

7

Neuroglia can also be called as ____ cells.

glial cells

8

Name 4 examples of glial cells found in the CNS.

1. Astrocytes

2. Oligodendrocytes

3. Microglial cells

4. Ependymal cells

9

Name 2 examples of glial cells found in the PNS.

1. Schwann cells

2. Satellite cells

10

Schwann cells are also called what?

Neurolemmocytes

11

Neuroglia or glial cells provide what 2 general benefits for neurons?

1. Support

2. Protection

12

Neuroglia or glial cells may also provide what 4 specific benefits for neurons?

1. Act as phagocytes

2. Myelinate the cytoplasmic extensions of neurons

3. Help with capillary-neuron exchanges

4. Control the chemical environment around neurons

13

Which specific group of neuroglia act as phagocytes?

Microglial cells

14

Which 2 specific groups of neuroglia myelinate the cytoplasmic extensions of the neurons?

1. Scwhann cells

2. Oligodendrocytes

15

Which specific group of neuroglia controls the chemical enviornment around neurons?

Astrocytes

16

What is the most abundant group of neuroglia?

Astrocytes

17

Microglial cells act as ____ cells in the CNS.

defensive cells

18

Ependymal cells line what type of cavities?

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled cavities

19

Oligodendrocytes have processes that form what around CNS axons?

Myelin sheaths

20

What are the 2 functions of satellite and Schwann cells?

1. Form myelin

2. Surround neurons in the PNS

21

Group astroctyes, microglial cells, oligodendrocytes, and satellite and Schwann cells on where they are found: CNS or PNS.

CNS: astrocytes, microglial cells, oligodendrocytes

PNS: satellite and Schwann cells

22

Unlike neurons, neuroglia or glial cells are not capable of doing what 2 things with nerve impulses?

1. Incapable of generating nerve impulses

2. Incapable of transmitting nerve impulses

23

What are the basic functional units of nervous tissue?

Neurons

24

Describe the function of neurons.

Transmit messages from one part of the body to another as nerve impulses.

25

What are the 4 common features of neurons (Hint: 3 are physical and 1 is functional)?

1. All have a cell body

2. Two types of processes

3. Nerve (or neuron) fibers are covered by myelin

4. Neurons can be excited by other neurons

26

The cell body is important to the neuron in what 2 ways?

1. Acts as the biosynthetic center.

2. Makes up the receptive region.

27

Neuron bodies make up which matter of the CNS?

gray matter

28

The neuron cell bodies making up the gray matter of the CNS are called what?

nuclei

29

In the PNS, clusters of neuron cell bodies are called what?

ganglia

30

The neuron cell body contains what 2 features common to all cells?

1. nucleus

2. cytoplasm

31

What 2 structures are found in the cytoplasm of a neuron cell body?

1. Neurofibrils

2. Chromatophilic substance

32

What are neurofibrils made up of and what are their 2 functions?

They are cytoskeletal elements.

Functions:

1. Support the neuron cell

2. Transport substances throughout the neuron

33

Chromatophilic substances are clusters of what 2 metobolism-related structures?

1. Rough endoplasmic reticulum

2. Ribosomes

34

What are the 2 types of processes of neurons?

1. Dendrites

2. Axons

35

What are dendrites and what is their function?

They are receptive regions that bear receptors for neurotransmitters.

36

Axons are also called what type of fibers?

Nerve fibers.

37

Axons form what 2 specific regions of a neuron?

1. Impulse-generating region

2. Impulse-conducting region

38

The white matter of the nervous system is made up of what neuronal feature?

axons

39

How many dendrites and axon(s) may neurons have?

May have many dendrites but only have a single axon.

40

When an axon branches and forms one or more processes, what are the processes now called?

Axon collaterals.

41

How is a neuron excited?

When the axons of other neurons release neurotransmitters close to its dendrites or cell body.

42

Upon excitation, the produced electrical signal travels across what first?

The cell body

43

If the electrical signal traveling across the cell body is great enough, it elicits what?

A nerve impulse or action potential

44

The nerve impulse or action potential is an electrical signal that resultantly travels down which feature of a neuron?

Axon

45

The axon ends in many small structures called ____.

Terminal boutons or axon terminals

46

Terminal boutons or axon terminals form synapses with what 2 types of cells?

1. Other neurons

2. Effector cells

47

The terminal boutons or axon terminals are separated from the cell body or dendrites of the postsynaptic neuron by a gap called ____.

the synaptic cleft

48

Is there actual physical contact between neurons?

No.

49

Most long nerve fibers are covered by which fatty material?

myelin

50

Long nerve fibers covered by myelin are called what?

Myelinated fibers

51

What are the 2 functions of myelin?

1. Insulate the long nerve fibers

2. Increase the speed of neurotransmission

52

Nerve fibers in the PNS are myelinated by what cells?

Schwann cells

53

The wrapping of nerve fibers in the PNS by Schwann cells creates what type of sheath?

Myelin sheath

54

Why is the myelin sheath a discontinuous sheath?

It's formed by many individual Schwann cells.

55

The gaps in the myelin sheath are called what?

Myelin sheath gaps or nodes of Ranvier

56

In the CNS, myelination is accomplished by which group of neuroglia?

Oligodendrocytes

57

How are the CNS myelin sheaths different from the PNS myelin sheaths?

They do not exhibit the outer collar of perinuclear cytoplasm seen in fibers myelinated by Schwann cells in the PNS.

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