The endocrine system Pg. 2

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1

Why is direct gene activation steroid and thyroid hormone activated?

Direct gene activation is steroid and thyroid hormone activated due to being lipid soluble.

2

Steroid hormones ___ ___ the ___ ___ of target cells into the cytoplasm.

Steroid hormones diffuse through the plasma membrane of target cells into the cytoplasm.

3

Where do steroid hormones bind?

Steroid hormones bind to its specific protein receptor located in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus.

4

When steroid hormones bind to its specific protein receptor located in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus it forms what?

When steroid hormones bind to its specific protein receptor located in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus it forms a hormone-receptor complex (HRC).

5

The HRC then binds where? Which in turn does what (aka ___ __)?

The HRC then binds to specific sites on the cell's DNA

which in turn activates genes (aka gene transcription).

6

Activated genes results in what?

Activated genes results in the synthesis of new proteins - whatever that cell is designed to make.

7

Why is the second-messenger system protein hormone activated?

The second-messenger system is protein hormone activated due to it being water soluble.

8

In the second-messenger system where does the hormone bind? Why?

In the second-messenger system the hormone binds to a membrane receptor

because protein hormones can't cross the cell membrane.

9

In the second-messenger system the hormone doesn't enter the cell but does what?

In the second-messenger system the hormone doesn't enter the cell but binds to a cell surface receptor.

10

A hormone binding to a cell surface receptor stimulates a reaction that what?

A hormone binding to a cell surface receptor stimulates a reaction that produces a second-messenger molecule in the cytoplasm.

11

What are the 2 second-messenger molecule that can be produced?

The 2 second-messenger molecule that can be produced are:

1. cAMP

OR

2. Ca 2+

12

cAMP (cyclic AMP) requires what? Specifically what?

cAMP (cyclic AMP) this process requires energy.

Specifically, 1 ATP molecule for every cAMP produced.

13

What is the link between the first messenger (the hormone) and the second messenger?

The link between the first messenger (the hormone) and the second messenger is a G protein.

14

How does Ca2+ work?

Ca2+ works by binding to calmodulin which in turn exerts its effect.

15

What does the second-messenger system set off?

What is it known as?

The result of the second-messenger system sets off a series of reaction that activates cell activity by way of enzymes.

This is known as an enzyme cascade.

16

Hormone levels in the blood are mostly maintained by what?

Hormone levels in the blood are mostly maintained by negative feedback.

17

How many types of stimuli can trigger the release of a hormone and what are they?

3 types of stimuli can trigger the release of a hormone.

1. Hormonal stimuli of endocrine glands

2. Humoral stimuli of endocrine glands

3. Neural stimuli of endocrine glands

18

When does hormone release stop?

Hormone release stops once an appropriate level in the blood is reached.

19

What is the most common stimuli?

The most common stimuli is hormonal stimuli of endocrine glands.

20

What are hormonal stimuli of endocrine glands?

Hormonal stimuli of endocrine glands is a gland stimulating another gland.

21

Endocrine glands are activated by what?

Endocrine glands are activated by other hormones.

22

What is an example of hormonal stimuli of endocrine glands?

An example of hormonal stimuli of endocrine glands is:

The hypothalamus senses low blood levels of T3 and T4.

This stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to release TSH.

TSH targets the thyroid gland to produce more T3 and T4.

23

How does humoral stimuli on endocrine glands work?

Humoral stimuli on endocrine glands works by changing blood levels of certain ions or glucose which stimulates hormone release.

24

Humoral historically refers to what?

What being the primary one?

Humoral historically refers to various fluids

blood being a primarily one.

25

2 example of humoral stimuli of endocrine glands.

1. Parathyroid hormone (PTH). When there are low blood levels of Ca2+ it triggers the release of PTH.

2. Insulin. Increased blood levels of glucose stimulates the release of insulin.

26

How does neural stimuli of endocrine glands work?

Neural stimuli of endocrine glands works when nerve impulses stimulate hormone release.

27

Most neural stimuli of endocrine glands are under the control of what system?

Most neural stimuli of endocrine glands are under the control of the sympathetic nervous system.

28

Example of how neural stimuli of endocrine gland works:

The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine by the adrenal medulla (fight or flight response).

29

Neural stimuli of endocrine glands can also be what?

Such as what?

Neural stimuli of endocrine glands can also be sensory stimulus

such as in cervical "stretch" or "suckling".

30

What are the 9 Major endocrine organs:

The 9 Major endocrine organs are:

1. pituitary gland

2. thyroid gland

3. parathyroid glands

4. adrenal glands

5. pineal gland

6. thymus gland

7. pancreas

8. Gonads (ovaries and testes)

9. hypothalamus

31

The pituitary gland is the size of what?

It hangs by what?

The pituitary gland is the size of a pea.

It hands by a stalk (ka the infundibulum), from the hypothalamus in the brain.

32

What is the pituitary gland protected by?

The pituitary gland is protected by the sphenoid bone (ka sella turcica).

33

The pituitary gland has how many functional lobes and what are they called?

The pituitary gland has 2 functional lobes:

1. anterior pituitary

2. posterior pituitary

34

The posterior pituitary is made of what type of tissue?

The posterior pituitary is made of nervous tissue.

35

The anterior pituitary is made of what type of tissue?

The anterior pituitary is made of glandular tissue.

36

The pituitary gland is often called what?

The pituitary gland is often the master gland.