Campbell Biology: Campbell Biology Chapter 37 Key Terms Flashcards


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Campbell Biology
Chapter 37
updated 6 years ago by juliebarr
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1

Humus

Decomposing organic material that is a component of topsoil.

2

topsoil

A mixture of particles derived from rock, living organisms, and decaying organic material (humus).

3

soil horizons

A soil layer with physical characteristics that differ from those of the layers above or beneath.

4

loams

The most fertile soil type, made up of roughly equal amounts of sand, silt, and clay.

5

cation exchange

A process in which positively charged minerals are made available to a plant when hydrogen ions in the soil displace mineral ions from the clay particles.

6

sustainable agriculture

Long-term productive farming methods that are environmentally safe.

7

fertilization

The addition of mineral nutrients to the soil.

8

no-till agriculture

A plowing technique that minimally disturbs the soil, thereby reducing soil loss.

9

phytoremediation

An emerging technology that seeks to reclaim contaminated areas by taking advantage of some plant species’ ability to extract heavy metals and other pollutants from the soil and to concentrate them in easily harvested portions of the plant.

10

essential element

A chemical element required for an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

11

hydroponic culture

A method in which plants are grown in mineral solutions rather than in soil.

12

macronutrients

An essential element that an organism must obtain in relatively large amounts.

13

micronutrients

An essential element that an organism needs in very small amounts.

14

rhizobacteria

A soil bacterium whose population size is much enhanced in the rhizosphere, the soil region close to a plant’s roots.

15

rhizosphere

The soil region close to plant roots and characterized by a high level of microbiological activity.

16

nitrogen cycle

The natural process by which nitrogen, either from the atmosphere or from decomposed organic material, is converted by soil bacteria to compounds assimilated by plants. This incorporated nitrogen is then taken in by other organisms and subsequently released, acted on by bacteria, and made available again to the nonliving environment.

17

nitrogen fixation

The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3). Biological type is carried out by certain prokaryotes, some of which have mutualistic relationships with plants.

18

bacteroids

A form of the bacterium Rhizobium contained within the vesicles formed by the root cells of a root nodule.

19

crop rotation

The practice of planting nonlegumes one year and legumes in alternating years to restore concentrations of fixed nitrogen in the soil.

20

mycorrhizae

A mutualistic association of plant roots and fungus.

21

ectomycorrhizae

Association of a fungus with a plant root system in which the fungus surrounds the roots but does not cause invagination of the host (plant) cells’ plasma membranes.

22

arbuscular mycorrhizae

Association of a fungus with a plant root system in which the fungus causes the invagination of the host (plant) cells’ plasma membranes.

23

Epiphytes

A plant that nourishes itself but grows on the surface of another plant for support, usually on the branches or trunks of trees.