Activity 4: Examining Vertebral Structure and the Thoracic Cage

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1

What type of bone is the sternum?

Flat bone

2

The sternum is the result of fusion of how many bones?

3

3

What are the 3 bones that make up the sternum?

1. Manubrium

2. Body

3. Xiphoid process

4

The sternum is attached to how many ribs?

First 7 pairs of ribs

5

The manubrium articulates with what bone (not any of the ribs) laterally?

Clavicle

6

What part of the sternum forms its bulk?

The body

7

The xiphoid process lies in which intercostal space?

5th intercostal space

8

In children, what is the xiphoid process made of?

Hyaline cartilage

9

In adults (over the age of 40), what happens to the xiphoid process?

It becomes ossified.

10

Some people have a malformed xiphoid process. What is wrong with it?

It projects dorsally.

11

Why may a dorsally-projecting xiphoid process be problematic?

Physical trauma to the chest can push the xyphoid process into the heart or liver, causing hermmorage.

12

What are the 3 important bony landmarks for the sternum?

1. Jugular notch

2. Sternal angle

3. Xiphisternal joint

13

Where is the jugular notch located in regards to the intercalated discs?

At the level of the disc between the second and third thoracic vertebrae.

14

The sternal angle is the result of what 2 sternum features meeting?

Manubrium and body

15

What is formed in the sternal angle and at which level of the ribs?

A transverse ridge is formed at the level of the second ribs.

16

The second intercostal space can be listened for what?

certain heart valves

17

The sternal angle is an important anatomical landmark for what stype of surgery?

Thoracic surgery

18

The xiphisternal joint is the point where which 2 sternum features meet?

1. sternal body

2. xiphoid process

19

The xiphisternal joint lies at which vertebra level?

9th thoracic vertebra

20

The sternum is a favored site for obtaining what type of tissue?

Blood-forming (or hematopoietic) tissue

21

The 12 ribs form what of the thoracic cage?

the walls of the thoracic cage

22

In which 2 ways does all the ribs articulate posteriorly with the vertebral column?

1. Articulate posteriorly with their heads

2. Articulate posteriorly with their tubercles

23

The first 7 pairs of the ribs are called what?

True ribs or vertebrosternal ribs

24

Why are true ribs called that?

They are attached directly to the sternum by their "own" costal cartilage

25

The next 5 (after the first 7) or 8-12 ribs are called what?

False ribs

26

False ribs earn their name for what 2 reasons?

1. They attach indirectly to the sternum

OR

2. They entirely lack a sternal attachment

27

Of the false ribs, ribs 8-10 are also called what?

vertebrochondral ribs

28

Describe vertebrochondral ribs in regards to cartilage attachment.

They have indirect cartilage attachments to the sternum via the costal cartilage of rib 7.

29

The last two pairs of ribs, 11-12, are called what?

Floating or vertebral ribs

30

Describe floating/vertebral ribs in regards to sternal attachment.

There is no sternal attachment at all!

31
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Identify the missing features.

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Identify the missing features.

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