Toxicology Test 1

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 3 years ago by akademic
253 views
Yeahhhhhhhhhhhhhhh
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1
  1. All of the following are essential in the study of toxicology except:
    1. Human subjects testing
    2. Interdisciplinary knowledge
    3. Experimentation
    4. Exposures at a range of doses
    5. The chemical makeup of a toxin/ toxicant
  1. Human subjects testing
2
  1. A reason that people respond differently to the same toxin/ toxicant is:
    1. Age
    2. Lifestyle
    3. Epigenetics
    4. A and B only
    5. A, B and C
  1. A, B and C
3
  1. The LD50 accurately reflects toxicological effects of a chemical
    1. True
    2. False
  1. False
4
  1. A toxin/ toxicant causing effects locally vs. systemically is dependent upon all of the following except:
    1. Mechanism of action
    2. Distribution
    3. Integration
    4. Absorption
    5. Elimination
  1. Integration
5
  1. When chemical A and B are administered simultaneously, their combined effects are far greater than the sum of their effects when given alone. The chemical interaction between chemicals A and B can be described as which of the following?
    1. Additive
    2. Synergistic
    3. Functionally antagonistic
    4. Antagonistic
    5. Potentiate
  1. Synergistic
6
  1. Please see Figure 1 at the end of the exam. Which of the statements below is true?
    1. Repeated dose are never relevant to concentration
    2. Time does not affect toxicity
    3. Different chemicals are eliminated from the body at similar rates
    4. Dosage frequency and elimination rate are important determinants of concentration
    5. Chemical B has a higher concentration than C after multiple does even though they hace the same elimination rate.
  1. Dosage frequency and elimination rate are important determinants of concentration
7
  1. The therapeutic index of a drug:
    1. Explains the change in response to a drug as the dose is increased
    2. Describes the ratio of the toxic does to the therapeutic dose of the drug.
    3. Describes the potency of a chemical in eliciting a desired response
    4. Is lower in drug that are safer
    5. Is the amount of a drug needed to cure a illness
  1. Describes the ratio of the toxic does to the therapeutic dose of the drug.
8
  1. The severity of a toxin depends, in large part, on the concentration of the toxin at its site of action. Which of the following will decrease the amount of toxin reaching its site of action?
    1. Inhalation in the lungs
    2. Biotransformation
    3. Absorption across the skin
    4. Reabsorption across the intestinal mucosa
    5. Exception via the kidneys
  1. Exception via the kidneys
9
  1. Surface area plays a critical role in absorption
    1. True
    2. False

True

10
  1. Distributions may be affected by all of the following except:
    1. Exchange across capillary beds
    2. Biotransformation
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. The first pass effect
    5. Transport mechanisms
  1. Carcinogenesis
11
  1. Which of the following plays a role in cell death following toxicity?
    1. A decrease in cytoplasmic calcium levels
    2. A rise in ATP production
    3. The elimination of reactive oxygen species
    4. Dysfunction of microfilaments
    5. The depletion of hydrolytic enzymes
  1. Dysfunction of microfilaments
12
  1. Necrosis requires ATP to produced and involves nuclear condensation and fragmentation
    1. True
    2. False

False

13
  1. Which of the following does not belong?
    1. DNA replication
    2. DNA adduct
    3. Missing base
    4. Crosslink
    5. Hydroxylation of DNA base

DNA replication

14
  1. DNA adducts are useful as biomarkers
    1. Because they are quantifiable
    2. Because they don’t tell us about dose
    3. Because they happen late in toxicity
    4. Because they aren’t indicative of the etiological agent
    5. Due to our inability to measure them

Because they are quantifiable

15
  1. Hormonal carcinogens drive_____ and are consider to be ____. They can result in a/an ____in ___.
    1. Cell proliferation; genotoxic; increase; repair
    2. Cell proliferation; non-genotoxic; increase; random genetic error
    3. DNA strand breaks; non-genotoxic; decreases; random genetic error
    4. Cell death; non-genotoxic; increase; repair
    5. Cell proliferation; genotoxic; increase; random genetic error
  1. Cell proliferation; non-genotoxic; increase; random genetic error
16
  1. Biotransformation:

I Involves enzymatic activity.

II typically occurs in the kidney.

III Creates ultimate compounds that are usually nucleophilic reagents

  1. I only
  2. II only
  3. III only
  4. I and II only
  5. I, II, and III

I only

17
  1. Which of the following is not associated with carcinogenesis?
    1. Mutation
    2. Normal p53 function
    3. Proto-oncogene activation
    4. Imbibition of apoptosis
    5. DNA repair failure
  1. Normal p53 function
18
  1. Active transport is the mechanism by which most toxins/ toxicants enter cells
    1. True
    2. False

False

19
  1. Specialized transport proteins known as ___ proteins can push chemicals back into the ___ lumen so they can be eliminated
    1. Ca2+;renal
    2. Mdr; cardiac
    3. Mdr; intestinal
    4. Ca2+; intestinal
    5. Mdr; renal
  1. Mdr; intestinal
20
  1. If something is injected and has negative consequences on the kidneys, which route will be the most toxic or the quickest to induce toxicity?
    1. Inhalation
    2. Intramuscular (IM)
    3. Intraperitoneal (IP)
    4. Intravenous (IV)
    5. Subcutaneous (SubQ)
  1. Intravenous (IV)
21
  1. A toxin/ toxicant cause effects locally vs. systemically is dependent upon all of the following except:
    1. Mechanism of action
    2. Distribution
    3. Integration
    4. Absorption
    5. Elimination
  1. Integration
22
  1. Which of the following is a potential storage site for a toxin/ toxicant?
    1. Bone
    2. Fat
    3. Plasma proteins
    4. Liver and kidney
    5. All of the above

All of The Above

23
  1. Which of the following can play a role in preventing the distribution of a toxin or toxicant?
    1. Anatomical structure
    2. Tight junctions
    3. Specialized transport systems
    4. Enzymatic activity
    5. All of the above

All of the above

24
  1. The following usually allow for a toxin or toxicant to be excreted except:
    1. Breastmilk
    2. Glomeruli
    3. Non-polar compound
    4. A and B
    5. A,B and C
  1. Non-polar compound
25
  1. The organizational unit of the human liver which house the processing zone and ____tracts is known as a ___
    1. Lobule, portal
    2. Portal, lobule
    3. Triad, portal
    4. Triad, lobule
    5. Lobule, triad
  1. Portal, lobule
26
  1. There is evidence that certain dietary components are carcinogenic. Which of the following is NOT tabbed as dietary carcinogen?
    1. Insufficient caloric intake
    2. Aflatoxin B1 (a fungal agent)
    3. Excessive alcohol consumption
    4. Excessive caloric intake
    5. Excessive protein intake
  1. Insufficient caloric intake
27
  1. Which of the following is the correct definition of a complete carcinogen?
    1. A chemical capable only of initiation cells
    2. A chemical possessing ability of inducing cancer from normal cells, usually possessing properties of initiating, promoting, and progression agents.
    3. A chemical capable of converting an initiated cell or a cell in the stage of promotion to a potentially malignant cell
    4. A chemical capable of causing the expansion of initiated cell clones

A chemical that will cause cancer 100% of the time that it is administered

  1. A chemical possessing ability of inducing cancer from normal cells, usually possessing properties of initiating, promoting, and progression agents.
28
  1. A chemical which can be identified as a carcinogen must meet the following criteria:
    1. The induction of neoplasms in greater amount than is usually observed
    2. The induction of neoplasms when they are usually not observed
  • The induction of neoplasms later than they usually occur
  1. I only
  2. II only
  3. III only
  4. I and II only
  5. I, II, and II
  1. I and II only
29
  1. ____- acting carcinogens typically produce a neoplasm at a site other than site of exposures. Often this is the site of metabolic activation which is the ___
    1. Indirect; kidneys
    2. Indirect; intestine
    3. Indirect; liver
    4. Direct; liver
    5. Direct; liver

indirect; liver

30
  1. ____ are a good example of the phrase “the does make the poison.” They work by inducing ____ at high doses but can also eventually cause ____ in cells that receive low doses. Typically, their mechanism of action is DNA damage
    1. Cancer cells; repair; angiogenesis
    2. Chemotherapies; cell death; carcinogenesis
    3. Chemotherapies; angiogenesis; repair
    4. Chemotherapies; carcinogenesis; cell death
    5. Cancer cells; repair; hypoxia
  1. Chemotherapies; cell death; carcinogenesis
31
  1. The initiation stage of carcinogenesis is usually characterized by:
    1. Being irreversible
    2. Mutation(s)
    3. Multiple treatments or exposures
    4. A and B
    5. A, B, and C
  1. A and B
32
  1. The promotion stage of carcinogenesis is usually characterized by:
    1. Being irreversible
    2. Mutation(s)
    3. Multiple treatments or exposures
    4. A and B
    5. A, B, and C
  1. Multiple treatments or exposures
33
  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are often associated with cancer. They are defined as:
    1. A different base than normal in the DNA seen in > 1% of the pollution
    2. A different DNA repair pathway being used than normal seen in > 1% of the population
    3. A different base than normal in the DNA seen in >3% of the population
    4. A different DNA repair pathway being use than normal seen in >3%of the population
    5. A different base then normal in the DNA seen in >10% of the population
  1. A different base than normal in the DNA seen in > 1% of the pollution
34
  1. Differences in species capability to biotransform specific chemicals are well known. Such differences are normally the basis for selective toxicity, used to develop chemicals effective as pesticides but relatively safe in humans
    1. Ture
    2. False

True

35
  1. Phase I metabolism is characterized by:
    1. Hydrolysis
    2. Oxidation
    3. Reduction
    4. All of the above
    5. None of the above

All of the above

36
  1. Phase II metabolism is characterized by:
    1. Hydrolysis
    2. Oxidation
    3. Reduction
    4. All of the above
    5. None of the above

None of the above

37
  1. What are the majors roles of zone 1 and zone 3, respectively, in the liver?
    1. Glycolysis; urea formation
    2. Biotransformation; glycolysis
    3. Oxidation; urea formation
    4. Biotransformation; oxidation
    5. Oxidation; biotransformation
  1. Oxidation; biotransformation
38
  1. The elimination half-life of a chemical can be defined as the time it takes for half of the chemical to be activated in and removed from the liver
    1. True
    2. False

False

39
  1. Fibrosis of the liver is characterized by:
    1. Laying down collagen
    2. Disruption of structure
    3. Laying down fat
    4. A and B
    5. A, B and C

A and B

40
  1. Damage in the liver can be restricted to particular region or zone of the organ even though it serves as a processing unit, rich in metabolic enzymes.
    1. True
    2. False

True