Activity 1: The Skull and Identifying the Bones of the Skull

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1

The skull is composed of how many sets of bones?

2

2

What are the 2 sets of bones that make up the skull?

1. Cranium

2. Facial bones

3

The cranium is made up of how many bones?

8

4

What are the 2 functions of the cranium bones in regards to the brain?

1. Enclose the brain tissue

2. Protect the brain tissue

5

What are the cranial bones?

Ethmoid, Sphenoid, Temporal, Parietal, Occipital, and Frontal bones.

6

The facial bones are made up of how many bones?

14

7

What are the 3 functions of the facial bones?

1. Support the eyes

2. Position them anteriorly.

3. Provide attachment for facial muscles.

8

All but one of the bones of skull are joined by what?

Sutures.

9

What are sutures?

Interlocking fibrous joints

10

What is the only bone of the skull not attached by a suture?

Mandible

11
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14
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25

The frontal bone has how many part(s)?

1

26

1. The frontal bone forms what?

2. Is the frontal bone the superior or inferior part of the orbit?

3. And how is the frontal bone related to the anterior cranial fossa?

1. Forms the forehead.

2. Superior

3. It is the floor of the anterior cranial fossa

27

The supraorbital margin is a marking of which cranial bone?

Frontal bone

28

What is the supraorbital margin?

Thick margin of the eye socket

29

Where does the supraorbital margin lie?

Beneath the eyebrows

30

The supraorbital foramen is a marking of which cranial bone?

frontal bone

31

What is the supraorbital foramen?

Opening above each orbit.

32

The supraorbital foramen allows what 2 things to pass?

1. Blood vessels

2. Nerves

33

The parietal bones have how many parts?

2

34

The parietal bones form what 2 parts of the skull?

1. Superior

2. Lateral

35

The temporal bones have how many parts?

2

36

The temporal bones form what aspects of the skull?

Inferolateral aspects

37

The temporal bones contribute to which fossa of the skull?

The middle cranial fossa

38

The temporal bones have which 3 distinct parts?

1. Squamous parts

2. Tympanic parts

3. Petrous parts

39

The zygomatic process is a marking of which cranial bone?

temporal bone

40

What is the zygomatic process?

A bridge-like projection

41

The zygomatic process articulates with what to form what?

Articulates with the zygomatic bone to form the zygomatic arch

42

The mandibular fossa is a marking of which cranial bone?

temporal bone

43

The mandibular fossa is located inferiorly to what bone marking on the temporal bone?

On the inferior surface of the zygomatic process

44

The mandibular fossa receives what of the mandible to form what joint?

Receives the condylar process of the mandible to form the temporomandibular joint

45

The external acoustic meatus is a marking of which cranial bone?

temporal bone

46

What is the external acoustic meatus?

A canal

47

The external acoustic meatus leads to what 2 body features?

1. middle ear

2. eardrum

48

The styloid process is a marking of which cranial bone?

temporal bone

49

What is the styloid process?

A needle-like projection

50

The styloid process serves as an attachment site for what 2 things?

1. ligaments

2. muscles of the neck.

51

The mastoid process is a marking of which cranial bone?

temporal bone

52

The mastoid process is located posteriorly to what bone marking of the temporal bone?

Located posterior to the external acoustic meatus.

53

The mastoid process serves as an attachment site for what?

Serves as attachment point for neck muscles.

54

The occipital bones is composed of how many parts?

1

55

The occipital bone forms which 2 parts of the skull?

1. Posterior aspect

2. Most of the skull's base

56

The foramen magnum is a marking of which cranial bone?

occipital bone

57

What is the foramen magnum?

Large opening in the base of the occipital bone.

58

The foramen magnum allows what 2 features to join?

Allows the spinal cord to join with the brain stem.

59

The occipital condyles is a marking of which cranial bone?

occipital bone

60

What are the occipital condyles and what are they lateral to?

Rounded projections lateral to the foramen magnum.

61

The occipital condyles articulate with which bone of the spinal column?

First cervical vertebra (atlas).

62

The sphenoid bone is composed of how many part(s)?

1

63

How does the sphenoid bone look?

Bat-shaped

64

Why is the sphenoid bone considered the keystone bone of the cranium?

It articulates with all other cranial bones.

65

The greater wings is a marking of which cranial bone?

sphenoid bone

66

The greater wings project laterally from what feature of the sphenoid bone?

Sphenoid body

67

The greater wings are parts of what 2 structures (Hint: fossa and eyes) of the skull?

1. Parts of the middle cranial fossa

2. Parts of the orbit

68

What are superior orbital fissures?

Slits in the orbits

69

The superior orbital fissures provide passage of what type of nerves to help control what type of movement?

Provide passage of cranial nerves that control eye movements.

70

The sella turcica is a marking of which cranial bone?

sphenoid bone

71

Where is the sella turcica located?

On the superior surface of the sphenoid body.

72

The sella turcica is also called what 2 terms?

1. Seat of the saddle

2. Hypophyseal plate

73

The sella turcica holds what?

Pituitary gland

74

The lesser wings is a marking of which cranial bone?

sphenoid bone

75

The lesser wings form parts of what 2 structures (Hint: fossa and orbit) of the skull?

1. Part of the floor of the anterior cranial fossa

2. Part of the orbit

76

The ethmoid bones is composed of how many parts?

1

77

The ethmoid bone contributes to which fossa of the skull?

anterior cranial fossa

78

The ethmoid bone forms parts of which 2 nasal structures in the skull?

1. Forms part of the nasal septum

2. Forms part of the nasal cavity

79

The ethmoid bone contributes to ____ of the orbit?

the medial wall of the orbit

80

The crista galli is a marking of which cranial bone?

ethmoid bone

81

The crista galli is also commonly called what?

"Rooster's comb"

82

What is the crista galli?

A superior projection

83

The crista galli attaches to what?

The dura mater

84

The crista galli secures what within what?

Helps to secure the brain within the skull.

85

The cibriform plate is a marking of which cranial bone?

ethmoid bone

86

How are the cibriform plates located to the crista galli?

Located laterally to the crista galli

87

The cibriform plates form portions of what 2 parts of the skull (Hint: nasal and fossa)?

1. Form a portion of the roof of the nasal cavity

2. Form the floor of the anterior cranial fossa

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The cibriform plates is also the site of "what" bulbs?

Olfactory bulbs

89

The cranium can be divided into which 2 major areas for study?

1. Calvaria

2. Cranial base

90

The calvaria forms which 3 walls of the skull?

1. Superior wall

2. Lateral wall

3. Posterior wall

91

The cranial base forms which part (top or bottom) of the skull?

Skull bottom

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What are the 3 distinct depressions of the cranial base?

1. anterior fossae

2. middle fossae

3. cranial fossae

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How does the brain reside in regards to the anterior fossae, middle fossae, cranial fossae and the calvaria?

The brain sits in the 3 fossae and is completely enclosed by the calvaria.

94

How many bones make up the cranium?

8

95

Which 2 bones of the 8 bones making up the cranium are paired?

1. the parietals

2. the temporals

96

In which 2 areas are the major sutures located?

1. Areas where the parietal bones articulate with each other.

2. Areas where the parietal bones articulate with other cranial bones.

97

Where does the sagittal suture occur?

Where the left and right parietal bones meet superiorly in the midline of the cranium.

98

Where does the coronal suture occur?

Occurs anteriorly where the parietal bones meet the frontal bone.

99

Where does the squamous suture occur?

Occurs where each parietal bone meets the temporal bone, on each lateral aspect of the skull

100

Where does the lambdoid suture occur?

Occurs where the parietal bones meet the occipital bone posteriorly

101

How many bones make up the face?

14

102

What are the 8 facial bones (Hint: Virgil Can Not Make My Pet Zebra Laugh!)?

Nasal, lacrimal, zygomatic, inferior nasal concha, palatine, vomer, maxilla, and mandible bones.

103

Of the 14 bones composing the face, how many are paired?

12

104

Of the 14 facial bones, which 2 are the only single bones?

1. Mandible

2. Vomer

105

Is the hyoid bone a facial bone?

No.

106

How many nasal bones are there?

2

107

Describe the nasal bones in regards to shape.

Small rectangular bones

108

The nasal bones form what body part of the skull?

The bridge of the nose

109

How many lacrimal bones are there?

2

110

The lacrimal bones, each of them, form parts of which structure of the skull?

Part of the medial orbit in between the maxilla and ethmoid bone

111

How many zygomatic bones are there?

2

112

The zygomatic bones are commonly called what?

Cheekbones

113

Each of the zygomatic bones form what part of the skull?

Part of the lateral orbit

114

The inferior nasal concha has how many parts?

2

115

The inferior nasal concha is also called what?

Inferior turbinate

116

Each of the nasal concha forms what?

Part of the lateral walls of the nasal cavities

117

The inferior nasal concha improves what through what cavity?

To improve airflow through the nasal cavity

118

The palatines have how many parts?

2

119

The palatine bones form what 3 parts of the skull?

1. Posterior hard palate

2. Small part of the nasal cavity

3. Part of the orbit

120

What does the vomer look like?

It is a thin, blade-shaped bone.

121

The vomer forms the inferior part of which bone structure?

Forms the inferior nasal septum.

122

The maxilla is made up of how many bones?

2

123

Why are the maxilla important?

They are keystone facial bones

124

What is the function of the maxilla?

They articulate with all other facial bones except the mandible.

125

The maxilla form what 4 parts of the body?

1. Upper jaw

2. Parts of the hard palate

3. Parts of the orbit

4. Parts of the nasal cavity

126

The infraorbtial foramen is a marking of which facial bone?

maxilla

127

What and where is the infraorbital foramen?

Opening under the orbit

128

The infraorbital foramen acts as a passage way for what 2 body features?

Acts as passageway for the

1. infraorbital artery

2. nerve.

129

The alveolar process is a marking of which facial bone?

maxilla

130

Where and what is the alveolar process (maxilla) located?

Inferior margin of the maxilla

131

The alveolar process contains what where the teeth lie?

Contain sockets where the teeth lie.

132

How many bone(s) make up the mandible?

1

133

What is the mandible?

lower jawbone

134

The mandible articulates with which bone to form what type of joint in the skull?

Articulates with the temporal bone to form the only freely moveable joints in the skull.

135

The condylar processes is a marking of which facial bone?

mandible

136

The condylar process or mandibular condyle articulates with what of the temporal bones?

Articulate with the mandibular fossae of the temporal bones

137

The coronoid process is a marking of which facial bone?

mandible

138

What is the coronoid process?

"Crown-shaped" portion of the ramus

139

The coronoid process is an attachment site for what?

Site for muscle attachment

140

The mental foramen is a marking of which facial bone?

mandible

141

What is the mental foramen?

Opening on the mandible

142

What are the 2 functions of the mental foramen?

1. Transmit blood vessels to the lower lip and skin of the chin

2. Transmit nerves to the lower lip and skin of the chin

143

The alveolar process is a marking of which facial bone?

mandible

144

What is the alveolar process (mandible)?

Superior margin of the mandible.

145

The alveolar process contains what in which the teeth lie?

Contain sockets in which the teeth lie.

146

The mandibular foramen is a marking of which facial bone?

mandible

147

Where is the mandibular foramen located?

On the medial surface of each ramus

148

The mandibular foramen acts as what for what?

Acts as a passageway for the nerve involved in tooth sensation.

149

How many bones form the orbit?

7

150

What are the 7 bones that form the orbit (Hint: Sometimes Zoro Eats Large Pickles For Months!)?

1. frontal bone

2. sphenoid bone

3. ethmoid bone

4. lacrimal bone

5. maxilla bone

6. palatine bone

7. zygomatic bone

151

Where is the hyoid bone located?

In the throat above the larynx

152

The hyoid bone serves as an attachment point for what 2 types of muscles?

1. tongue muscles

2. neck muscles.

153

Why is the hyoid bone unique?

It doesn't articulate with any other bone.

154

How is the hyoid bone shaped, and it has two pairs of what?

Horseshoe-shaped, 2 pairs of horns or cornua

155

What are the 4 skull bones that contain sinuses (Hint: Mary Eats Spicy Food!)?

1. maxillary

2. sphenoid bone

3. ethmoid bone

4. frontal bone

156

What are sinuses?

mucus-lined air cavities

157

Where do the sinuses lead?

Into the nasal passages.

158

What are the 2 functions of the sinuses?

1. Lighten the facial bones

2. May act as resonance chambers for speech

159

Which is the largest sinus?

Maxillary sinus

160

What is sinusitis?

Inflammation of the sinuses

161

Sinusitis occurs as a result of what 2 phenomena?

1. As a result of an allergy

2. As a result of a bacterial invasion of the sinus cavities

162

In case of an allergic reaction in the sinuses or bacterial infection of the sinuses, what happens to the connecting passageways between the sinuses and the nasal passages?

They become blocked with thick mucus or infectious material.

163

When the air is absorbed during allergic reactions or bacterial infections of the sinuses, what forms?

A partial vacuum forms.

164

What is the result when a partial vacuum forms?

Sinus headache localized over the inflamed sinus area.