Activity 2: Examining a Long Bone
What is the diaphysis of the bone?
The periosteum is what type of membrane and what tissue is that membrane made out of?
A fibrous membrane made up of dense irregular connective tissue
"What" of the periosteum penetrates into the bone?
The penetrating fibers of the periosteum are specifically called what?
Perforating collagen fiber bundles (aka Sharpey's fibers)
The perforating collagen fibers allow what 2 things to travel through the periosteum and invade the bone?
1. Blood vessels
In which specific layer of the bone can osteogenic cells be found?
Inner (or osteogenic) layer of the periosteum
What is the epiphysis?
The ends of long bone
Epiphysis is composed of a thin layer of what that encloses spongy bone?
A thin layer of compact bone that encloses spongy bone
Which type of cartilage covers the epiphyseal surfaces in place of the periosteum?
Articular cartilage is made up of what type of cartilage?
Articular cartilage provides what type of surface to minimize what at joints?
Provides smooth surface to minimize friction at joints
The epiphyseal plate is found at what age?
What is the epiphyseal plate composed of?
The epiphyseal plate provides for what type of growth during youth?
Provides for longitudinal bone growth during youth
With age and once the long bone stops growing, the hyaline cartilage in the epiphyseal plate is replaced by what?
When the hyaline cartilage of the epiphyseal plate is replaced, what is the epiphyseal plate now called?
In an adult animal, the central cavity of the shaft is a storage region for what marrow or tissue type?
Yellow marrow or adipose tissue
In infants, what is found in the central cavity of the shaft and what is made there?
red marrow, blood cells
In adults, what marrow is confined to the interior parts of the epiphyses?
Red marrow, in adults, can be found specifically between what of spongy bone?
Between trabeculae of spongy bone
The endosteum lines what 3 parts of a bone and covers what part of the bone?
1. Lines the medullary cavity
2. Lines the central canals of compact bone
3. Lines the perforating canals of compact bone
4. Covers the trabeculae of spongy bone
The endosteum contains what specific types of cells?
Osteogenic cells can differentiate into what?
What is the function of osteoblasts?
They synthesize bones by secreting a bone matrix and calcium.
Differentiate an osteoblast from an osteocyte.
An osteocyte is an osteoblast that has been embedded in the bone matrix it has secreted.
How does the thickness of the compact bone layer making up the shaft remain constant?
As the bone grows in diameter on its external surface, it is constantly being broken down on its inner surface.
What acts as a reliable indicator of the age of children exhibiting normal growth
Longitudinal bone growth at epiphyseal plates
Why does longitudinal bone growth at epiphyseal plates act as a reliable indicator of the age of children exhibiting normal growth?
It follows a predictable sequence
What is the name of a specific condition associated with problems of long-bone growth?
If problems of long-bone growth are suspected, what can you do to diagnose?
Use X-ray films to view the width of the growth plates
A thin epiphyseal plate indicates what?
Name the missing parts.
Name the missing parts.