Activity 1: Examining and Classifying Bones
The skeleton is constructed of what 2 most supportive tissues?
In embryos, the skeleton is comprised of primarily what cartilage?
In adults, most of the hyaline cartilage is replaced by what?
Cartilage remains in which 6 isolated areas?
1. external ear
2. bridge of nose
6. parts of rib cage (costal cartilage)
What are the 5 functions of the skeleton (aka bones)?
3. Acts as a system of levers for skeletal muscles to move the body
4. Store lipids and minerals (i.e. calcium)
Bones are connected where?
joints or articulations
The body is divided into which 2 divisions?
1. axial skeleton
2. appendicular skeleton
Define the makeup of the axial skeleton.
Bones lying around the body's center of gravity.
Define the makeup of the appendicular skeleton.
Bones of the limbs.
How many bones are there in the body?
The bones of the adult skeleton are composed of how many types of osseous tissues?
What are the two types of osseous tissues?
1. Compact bone
2. Spongy bone
Compact bone has what 2 physical features?
Spongy bone has what 2 features?
1. Composed of trabeculae (columns)
2. Lots of open space
Bones may be further classified into what 4 groups?
Describe the 2 general physical features of long bones.
1. Longer than they are wide
2. Consists of shaft with heads at either end
Long bones are composed primarily of what bone type?
What are 2 examples of long bones?
Describe the general physical feature of short bones.
Short bones are composed of what type of bone more than ____?
Composed of spongy bone more than compact bone
What are are 2 examples of short bones?
Describe the 2 general physical features of flat bones.
2. Two layers of compact bone sandwiching a thicker layer of spongy bone
Give general examples of flat bones?
Bones of the skull
Describe the feature of irregular bones.
They don't fall into the other three categories, long, short, and flat.
Give an example of irregular bones.
What are 2 other subcategories of bones?
1. Sesamoid bones
2. Sutural bones
What are sesamoid bones and where are they formed?
Short bones formed within tendons
Give an example of sesamoid bones.
What are sutural bones and where are they found?
Tiny bones between cranial bones
T/F? If false, explain why.
All sesamoid and sutural bones are not included in the bone count of 206?
False. The patellas, which are sesamoid bones, are included.
T/F? Bone surfaces are featureless.
Bones can be scarred with what 3 features?
Bumps, holes, and ridges can be classified generally as what?
Bone markings reveal what 3 things?
1. Where bones form joints with other bones
2. Where muscles, tendons, and ligaments were attached
3. Where blood vessels and nerves passed
Bone markings fall into what 2 main categories?
1. Projections or processes
2. Depressions or cavities
How do projections or processes physically form?
Grow out of bones
Projections or processes serve as the site for what and helps to form what?
1. Sites of muscle attachment
2. Help form joints
Describe depressions or cavities physically?
Indentations or openings in the bones
What is the main function of depressions or cavities?
Serve as conduits for nerves and blood vessels.
Categorize the various bones into long, short, flat, irregular, or sesamoid.
1. Long: Tibia, fibula, femur, humerus, radius, ulna, phalanges, metacarpals, metatarsals
2. Short: Tarsal, carpal, talus, calcaneus, patella
3. Flat: Sternum, cranium, rib, scapula, clavicle
4. Irregular: Vertebra, bones of pelvic girdle (ilium, pubis, ischium), facial bones