Chapter 8

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Microbiology
Chapter 8
updated 3 years ago by Tatyana_Narcisse_Zambrana
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1

Catalyst

Speed up rate of reaction without becoming the product

2

Catabolic

Release energy

3

Metabolism

The chemical reactions and work of a cell

4

Anabolism

Combination of cell membranes and structures (require energy)

5

The lock?

Enzyme

6

The key?

Substrate

7

Simple enzyme

Only have protein

8

Conjugated enzyme (holoenzyme)

Have protein and a non protein molecule

9

Site where substrate binds?

Active or catalytic site

10

What are organic compounds that work with the apoenzyme to alter the substrate?

Coenzyme

11

Breaks down large food molecules or harmful chemicals? (Extracellularly)

Exoenzymes

12

Enzymes of metabolic pathways? (intracellular)

Endoenzyme

13

What is always present in constant amounts and the level of enzyme never changes?

Constitutive enzymes

14

Production of what enzymes are turns on (induced) or turned off (repressed) in response to changes in concentration of the substrate?

Regulated enzymes

15

What is the word for a loss of electrons?

Oxidation

16

What is the word for a gain in electrons?

Reduction

17

NAD+

When a molecule has lost electrons & is oxidized

18

Gaining a hydrogen?

NADH

19

Which terms contribute to disease?

Virulence favors and toxins

20

What is considered turning off a gene that becomes an enzyme?

Enzyme repression

21

What is considered turning on a gene of protein that becomes an enzyme?

Enzyme induction

22

Exergonic reactions...

Release energy

23

Endergonic reactions...

Require energy to move

24

Phosphorylation

Stores energy in a high energy molecule

25

Most common electron carrier?

NAD

26

Carries hydrogen and electrons from dehydrogenation reactions

NAD

27

What is a series of reactions that converts glucose to CO2 & allows the cell to recover a lot of energy?

Aerobic respiration

28

Fermentation...

Doesn't require oxygen... facultative and aerotolerant anaerobes

29

Had a non O2 compound as electron acceptor..

Anaerobic respiration

30

Glucose is enzymatically converted to pyruvic acid in...

Glycolysis

31

What happens in glycolysis? (5 things)

-glucose goes in

-2 molecules of pyruvate come out

-have to phosphorylate molecules to start the process

-net gain of 2 ATP

-NAD gets converted to NADH twice

32

In the Krebs cycle, what is converted to acetyl CoA before it enters the cycle?

Pyruvic acid

33

How many times do all reactions occur in the Krebs cycle for each glucose because 2 pyruvates are formed during glycolysis?

Twice

34

In the Krebs cycle, how many molecules of reduced NAD are there?

6

35

In the Krebs cycle, how many molecules of reduced FAD are there?

2

36

How many ATP are produced on Krebs cycle?

2

37

What goes in the respiratory chain and what comes out?

NAD & FAD go in and WATER comes out

38

What captures released energy from the ETS carriers?

ATP synthase

39

The coupling of ATP synthesis to electron transport is?

Oxidative phosphorylation

40

How many ATP molecules does wax NADH that enters the ETS give rise to?

3

41

Proton motive force

Accumulating hydrogen ion concentration between membrane and cell wall

42

Where does glycolysis happen?

In the cytoplasm

43

What is the total possible production of ATP in aerobic respiration?

40

44

Where does the 40 ATP in aerobic respiration come from?

-4 from glycolysis

-2 from Krebs cycle

-34 from electron transport

-2 expended in early glycolysis

45

What is the maximum ATP per molecule of glucose?

38

46

What does fermentation use as their terminal electron acceptor?

Organic compounds

47

What breaks apart fatty acids joined to glycerol?

Lipases