Speed up rate of reaction without becoming the product
The chemical reactions and work of a cell
Combination of cell membranes and structures (require energy)
Only have protein
Conjugated enzyme (holoenzyme)
Have protein and a non protein molecule
Site where substrate binds?
Active or catalytic site
What are organic compounds that work with the apoenzyme to alter the substrate?
Breaks down large food molecules or harmful chemicals? (Extracellularly)
Enzymes of metabolic pathways? (intracellular)
What is always present in constant amounts and the level of enzyme never changes?
Production of what enzymes are turns on (induced) or turned off (repressed) in response to changes in concentration of the substrate?
What is the word for a loss of electrons?
What is the word for a gain in electrons?
When a molecule has lost electrons & is oxidized
Gaining a hydrogen?
Which terms contribute to disease?
Virulence favors and toxins
What is considered turning off a gene that becomes an enzyme?
What is considered turning on a gene of protein that becomes an enzyme?
Require energy to move
Stores energy in a high energy molecule
Most common electron carrier?
Carries hydrogen and electrons from dehydrogenation reactions
What is a series of reactions that converts glucose to CO2 & allows the cell to recover a lot of energy?
Doesn't require oxygen... facultative and aerotolerant anaerobes
Had a non O2 compound as electron acceptor..
Glucose is enzymatically converted to pyruvic acid in...
What happens in glycolysis? (5 things)
-glucose goes in
-2 molecules of pyruvate come out
-have to phosphorylate molecules to start the process
-net gain of 2 ATP
-NAD gets converted to NADH twice
In the Krebs cycle, what is converted to acetyl CoA before it enters the cycle?
How many times do all reactions occur in the Krebs cycle for each glucose because 2 pyruvates are formed during glycolysis?
In the Krebs cycle, how many molecules of reduced NAD are there?
In the Krebs cycle, how many molecules of reduced FAD are there?
How many ATP are produced on Krebs cycle?
What goes in the respiratory chain and what comes out?
NAD & FAD go in and WATER comes out
What captures released energy from the ETS carriers?
The coupling of ATP synthesis to electron transport is?
How many ATP molecules does wax NADH that enters the ETS give rise to?
Proton motive force
Accumulating hydrogen ion concentration between membrane and cell wall
Where does glycolysis happen?
In the cytoplasm
What is the total possible production of ATP in aerobic respiration?
Where does the 40 ATP in aerobic respiration come from?
-4 from glycolysis
-2 from Krebs cycle
-34 from electron transport
-2 expended in early glycolysis
What is the maximum ATP per molecule of glucose?
What does fermentation use as their terminal electron acceptor?
What breaks apart fatty acids joined to glycerol?