Nervous System 5 (WS 11)

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 3 years ago by sh7606
15 views
updated 3 years ago by sh7606
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Neurotransmitter Receptors

Two Types:
1. Cholinergic
2. Adrenergic

2

Cholinergic

A type of neurotransmitter receptor
aka Acetylcholine
Subtypes:
a) Nicotinic- In CNS, PNS, and skeletal muscle
b) Muscarinic- in CNS and PNS

3

Adrenergic

A type of neurotransmitter receptor
aka Cetecholamines; epinephrine and dopamine
Subtypes:
a) Alpha
b) Beta

4

Subtype Alpha

An adrenergic type of neurotransmitter receptor
What it does:
Vasoconstriction (constriction of blood vessels)
Iris dilation
Bronchoconstriction (constriction of lung airways due to tightening of surrounding muscles)
*Uterine smooth muscle contraction
Cardiac contractility

5

Subtype Beta

An adrenergic type of neurotransmitter receptor
What it does:
Vasodilation (dilation of blood vessels; lower blood pressure)
Cardioacceleration
Increased strength in myocardial (heart muscles)
*Uterus relaxation
Bronchodilation
Lipolysis/Glycogenolysis

6

Fast and Slow post synaptic responses

Opening ion channels is FAST
Using second messengers is SLOW (EX: cAMP)

7

Integration of Neurotransmitter signals

Information transfer at each exchange
the signal may be reduced, enhanced, or edited out (lost)
Types:
1. Divergence
2. Convergence
3. Summation
4. Synaptic modulation

8

Divergence

Type of neurotransmitter signal

one cell communicating to many others (amplifying impact)
Similar to retweeting- start with one, end with many

9

Convergence

Type of neurotransmitter signal

Many cells communicating with one (funneling information)
like reversing retweets- start with many, end with one

10

Summation

Integration of signals at a neuron
additive

11

Synaptic Modulation

Information modification at synapses

12

Convergent Integration

Summation- Multiple Graded Potentials (GP's)
additive strength at trigger zone
Types:
1. Spatial Summation
2. Temporal Summation

13

Spatial Summation

a type of convergent integration
SPACE

Summing post-synaptic potentials from several synapses
May yield threshold stimulus
Inhibitory GP's
cancel strength of excitatory GP signal at trigger too weak
Excitatory Post-synaptic Potential (EPSP)
they are positive
Inhibitory PSP (IPSP)
Negative when hitting a cell
NO AP produced

14

Temporal Summation

a type of convergent integration
TIME

Summing several post-synaptic potentials from successive firing of single pre-synaptic neuron to attain threshold

15

Synaptic Modulation

Global pre-synaptic inhibition
all targets of the post-synaptic neuron are inhibited equally
Selective pres-synaptic Inhibition
an inhibitory neuron synapses on one collateral of the pre-synaptic neuron and selectively inhibits one target

16

Long Term potentiation

A long lasting strengthening of the response of a post-synaptic nerve cell to stimulation across the synapse that occurs with repeated stimulation is thought to be learning and LTM(long term memory)
Sustained changes in synapse facilitates firing (due to overuse or lack of use)
May be key to learning and memory processing

17

Long Term Depression

Glutamate receptors withdrawn from surface (endocytosis) or changed

**Drawing in notes**