Social Psychology chapter 4

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Social Psychology
Chapter 4
updated 3 years ago by Michelle_Perez
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1

Social Perception

the study of how we form impressions and make inferences about other people

2

Nonverbal Communication

the way in which people communicate, intentionally, without words; nonverbal cues include facial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body position and movement, the use of touch, and gaze

3

Encode

to express or emit nonverbal behavior, such as smiling or patting someone on the back

4

Decode

to interpret the meaning of the nonverbal behavior other people express, such as deciding that a pat on the back was an expression of condescension and not kindness

5

Affect Blends

Facial expressions in which one part of the face registers one emotion while another part of the face registers a different emotion

6

Display Rules

Culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display

7

Emblems

Nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions within a given culture; they usually have direct verbal translations, such as the OK sign

8

Thin-Slicing

Drawing meaningful conclusions about another person's personality or skills based on an extremely brief sample of behavior

9

Primacy Effect

when it comes to forming impressions, the first traits we perceive in others influence how we view information that we learn about them later

10

Belief Perseverance

The tendency to stick with an initial judgment even in the face of new information that should prompt us to reconsider

11

Attribution Theory

a description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own and other people's behavior

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Internal Attribution

The inference that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about the person, such as attitude, character, or personality

13

External Attribution

the inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about the situation he or she is in; the assumption that most people would respond the same way in that situation

14

Covariation Model

a theory that states that to form an attribution about what caused a person's behavior, we systematically note the pattern between the presence or absence of possible causal factors and whether the behavior occurs

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consensus information

information about the extent to which other people behave the same way toward the same stimulus as the actor does

16

Distinctiveness Information

information about the extent to which one particular actor behaves in the same way to different stimuli

17

Consistency Information

Information about the extent to which the behavior between one actor and one stimulus is the same across time and circumstances

18

Fundamental Attribution Error

the tendency to overestimate the extent to which other people's behavior is due to internal, dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors

19

Perceptual Salience

The seeming importance of information that is the focus of people's attention

20

Two-Step Attribution Process

Analyzing another person's behavior first by making an automatic internal attribution and only then thinking about possible situational reasons for possible situational reasons, for the behavior, after which one may adjust the original internal attribution

21

Self-Serving Attributions

Explanations for one's successes that credit internal, dispositional factors and explanations for one's failures that blame external, situational factors

22

Belief in a Just World

a form of defensive attribution wherein people assume that bad things happen to bad people and that good things happen to good people.

23

Bias Blind Spot

The tendency to think that other people are more susceptible to attributional biases in their thinking than we are