AP Bio Chapter 35/36 Learning Cards Flashcards

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Transpiration is the process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to small pores on the underside of leaves, where it changes to vapor and is released to the atmosphere. Transpiration is essentially evaporation of water from plant leaves.

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The opening on a leaf of a plant where the plant performs gas exchange. When the stomata opens, water is lost so guard cells have to regulate when the stomata can open and when it needs to stay shut

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Guard Cells

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The cells at the opening of a stomata that regulates gas exchange. The turgor pressure makes the guard cells swell and open but only when there is enough water that the guard cells can have enough pressure. If there is low water in the leaf, the guard cells shrivel up and with the lack of structure due to the lack of water and turgor pressure, the guard cells close the opening, stopping gas exchange and water loss



The biological process in which an organism developed its shape. In plants there are some important parts:

  • Roots
  • stems
  • leaves

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A fungus that grows and develops a symbiotic relationship with the roots of a plant. It helps the roots reach out more to get nutrients from farther place and in exchange, the plant lets sugar molecules leak out of the roots into the surrounding soil so that colonies of the fungi can grow there.

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Water potential

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The measure of the relative tendency of water to move from one area to another, and is commonly represented by the Greek letter Ψ (Psi). Water potential is caused by osmosis, gravity, mechanical pressure, or matrix effects including surface tension.

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Xylem and Phloem

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Xylem transports water and solutes from the roots to the leaves, phloem transports food from the leaves to the rest of the plant. Transpiration is the process by which water evaporates from the leaves, which results in more water being drawn up from the roots.

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Cohesion is when water molecules use hydrogen bonds and link together with weak bonds. It is the reason why a water drop doesn't just go flat, it stays in a droplet because of all the water molecules that have bonded via hydrogen bonds together.


Bulk flow

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Movement of water and solutes together due to a pressure gradient.


Root system and shoot system

The root system pulls nutrients, water, and minerals from the soil and send it to the shoot system, where it uses the nutrients and water and minerals to do photosynthesis that creates sugar to be sent down to the roots. The root system depends on the shoot system, which depends on the room systemm

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  • Anchor the plant
  • Absorb minerals and water
  • Store organic nutrients; Ex: potato
  • Root hairs are the ones that absorb the nutrients and water. They increase surface area
  • Prop roots: bamboo
  • Storage roots: radish
  • Pneumatophores: the roots that are in the air so the tree can breath when it floods


Root cap and apical meristems

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The apical meristem is in the roots tips, where the roots grow and the root cap is what protects the meristem from being destroyed. There are three zones of cell growth:

  • Zone of cell division: Before school-Elementary school
  • Zone of elongation: Middle school-High school
  • Zone of maturation: Finding a job after collage

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The epidermis (like the skin) of the leaves is interrupted by stomata, which allows CO2 and O2 exchange between the air and the photosynthetic cells of a leaf



When the cell uses active transport to send some molecules that can easily get into the cell outside so that it creates an imbalance. When nature wants to put the molecule back in, the cell says that it needs to bring in another molecule that may be difficult for it to get into the cell so the easy molecule brings the harder molecule with it and it goes through special transport proteins that can let both in and then nature is happy

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Diffusion and Osmosis

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Molecules flow from higher concentrated to lower concentrated regions