The Integumentary System

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1

Why is the integument considered an organ system?

Consists of multiple organs.

2

6 main functions of the skin.

1. Protection of entire body from abrasion, chemicals, temperature extremes, and microbial invasion

2. Insulation

3. Cushion underlying tissues

4. Excretion

5. Synthesizes vitamin D

6. Location of touch, pressure, pain, and temperature sense organs

3

The hardened uppermost layer of the skin helps prevent what?

Water-loss.

4

What are the 2 distinct regions of the skin?

1. Epidermis

2. Dermis

5

Is the hypodermis considered part of the skin?

No.

6

What is the hypodermis composed of?

Adipose cells.

7

What is the tissue type that makes up the epidermis?

Stratified squamous epithelium

8

How many cell types are found in the epidermis?

4

9

The epidermis usually consists of how many distinct layers?

4-5

10

What are the 4 cells of the epidermis?

1. Keratinocytes

2. Melanocytes

3. Dendritic cells (aka Langerhans cells)

4. Tactile epithelial cells

11

What's the function of keratinocytes?

Produce keratin fibrils.

12

Which is the most abundant epidermal cell?

Keratinocytes

13

What is keratin?

Fibrous protein.

14

Keratin provides what 2 things for the epidermis?

1. Durability

2. Protection

15

What is the function of melanocytes?

Produce melanin pigment.

16

Why does the skin tan?

Melanin production increases upon exposure to sunlight.

17

What is the effect of melanin?

Protects nucluei of cells in the deeper layers from DNA-damaging, ultraviolet radiation.

18

What is the function of dendritic or Langerhans cells?

Play a role in immunity.

19

What is the function of tactile epithelial cells?

Form sensitive touch receptors.

20

1. In thin skin, the epidermis consists of how many layers?

2. What are they (from most basal to most outer)?

1. 4

2. Stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum corneum

21

Thick skin is found in which 2 locations?

1. Palms of hands

2. Soles of feet

22

Thick skin contains which fifth layer of epidermis?

Stratum lucidum

23

Of the 4-5 epidermal layers, which is always undergoing mitosis to form new cells?

Stratum basale.

24

Which 2 layers are the only ones to receive nourishment from diffusion of nutrients in the dermis?

1. Stratum basale

2. Stratum spinosum

25

Stratum granulosum is abundant with what?

Granule cells

26

What are the 2 types of granules found in stratum granulosum?

1. Lamellar granules

2. Keratohyaline granules

27

What is the function of lamellar granules?

Secretes a waterproofing glycolipid into the extracellular space.

28

What is the function of keratohyaline granules?

Form keratin in the more superficial layers.

29

What is stratum lucidum composed of?

Dead keratinocytes.

30

The stratum corneum layer contains which type of cells, and what is constantly happening to that specific type?

Dead keratinocytes that are constantly being replaced.

31

The dermis is composed of which tissue type?

Dense irregular connective tissue

32

What are the 2 regions of the dermis?

1. Papillary area

2. Reticular area

33

The papillary dermis is composed of which tissue type?

Areolar connective tissue.

34

The finger-like projections of the papillary dermis are called what?

Dermal papillae

35

What is the function of the dermal-papillae?

Attachment to the epidermis

36

The dermal-papillae also produce what?

Fingerprints

37

Tactile corpuscles and pain receptors are also found in which distinct region, the epidermis or the dermis?

Dermis

38

What is the deepest skin layer?

Reticular dermis

39

Reticular dermis is composed of what?

Dense irregular connective tissue.

40

The reticular dermis contains what 5 structures?

1. Arteries

2. Veins

3. Sweat glands

4. Sebaceous glands

5. Pressure receptors

41

The papillary dermis and reticular dermis are abundant in which 2 fibers?

1. Collagen

2. Elastic

42

Which fiber gives skin it's elasticity in youth?

Elastic.

43

What allows skin to regulate body temperature?

Dermal blood supply.

44

Any restriction to the normal blood supply of the skin results in what?

Cell death

45

How do bedsores occur?

Not enough turning in bed.

46

The dermis is also richly provided with what 2 additional features?

1. Lymphatic vessels

2. Nerve fibers

47

Skin color is predicated on what 3 things?

1. Melanin in the skin

2. Degree of oxygenation of the blood

2. Caretene in skin

48

Flushed skin may indicate what 2 things?

1. Hypertension

2. Fever

49

Cyanosis, or the blood turning blue, can occur in what 2 cases?

1. Asphyxiation

2. Lung disease

50

Which color is associated with Juandice, and which disease does Juandice hint of?

Yellow and indicative of liver disease

51

Bronzing of the skin is also known as what disease, and what is it indicative of?

Addison's disease and indicative of a hypoactive adrenal cortex.

52

What are 3 accessory organs of the skin?

1. Cutaneous glands

2. Hair

3. Nails

53

The cutaneous glands fall into which 2 categories?

1. Sebaceous glands

2. Sweat glands

54

The sebaceous glands are found nearly all over the skin except for which 2 places?

1. Palms of hands

2. Soles of feet

55

The ducts of sebaceous glands usually empty into what?

A hair follicle

56

What is the product of sebaceous glands?

Sebum

57

What are the 2 functions of sebum?

1. Moisturizes the skin

2. Keeps hair from becoming brittle.

58

When are the sebaceous glands really active?

During puberty.

59

Blackheads are the accumulation of what 3 things?

1. Dried sebum

2. Bacteria

3. Melanin

60

How does acne arise?

Active infection of the sebaceous glands.

61

Sweat glands are endocrine or exocrine glands?

Exocrine.

62

Are there any exceptions where sweat glands cannot be found?

None.

63

Outlets for sweat glands are called what?

Pores.

64

Where are eccrine sweat glands distributed?

All over the body.

65

Eccrine sweat glands secrete what 3 things?

1. Water

2. Salts

3. Urea

66

What is a key, but overlooked function of eccrine glands?

Regulate body temperature by secreting perspiration when the external body temperature is too high.

67

Apocrine sweat glands can be found primarily in what 2 locations?

1. Axillary

2. Genital areas

68

Apocrine sweat glands secrete what 5 products?

1. Water

2. Salts

3. Urea

4. Proteins

5. Fatty substances

69

This sweat is, by itself, odorless, but why does it smell still?

Bacteria breakdown the proteins and fatty substances, resulting in an unpleasant smell.

70

How can you describe nails with regards to the epidermis?

Horn-like derivatives of the epidermis.

71

Nails consist of which 9 certain parts?

1. Nail plate

2. Free edge

3. Hyponychium

4. Root

5. Nail folds

6. Eponychium

7. Nail bed

8. Nail matrix

9. Lanule

72

Which part of the nails adheres to an epithelial nail bed?

The root

73

The nail bed is an extension of what?

Stratum basale

74

Hair can be found all over the entire body surface except for what 5 parts?

1. Palms of hands

2. Soles of feet

3. Parts of external genitalia

4. Nipples

5. Lips

75

Hair consists of what 2 organs?

1. Hair shaft

2. Hair root

76

The hair bulb is a collection of what and where?

Epithelial cells at the base of the hair follicle.

77

What are the 3 layers of the hair shaft and the hair root?

1. Medulla in the center

2. Surrounded by cortex

3. Both above surrounded by protective cuticle

78

How do split ends come about?

Abrasion of the cuticle at the tip of the hair shaft.

79

Hair follicle is formed in which 2 types of cells?

1. Epidermal

2. Dermal

80

What protrudes into the hair bulb from the peripheral connective tissue and provides nutrition?

Dermal papilla.

81

What is located on top of the dermal papilla?

Layer of actively dividing epithelial cells called hair matrix.

82

What is the function of arrector pili muscle?

Connects each hair follicle to the papillary layer of the dermis.

83

The arrector pili muscle is composed of what muscle type?

Smooth

84

How do goosebumps arise?

When arrector pili muscle contract, pulling the slanted hair follicle upright.

85
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