Campbell Biology II

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1

Pathogen

A bacterium, fungus, virus or other disease - causing agents.

2

Immune system

An organism's system of defenses against agents that cause disease, and helps to avoid/limit many infections.

3

To fight infections:

Immune system must detect foreign particles and cells within the body; as distinguishes nonself from self

4

What does immune system produce that bind to molecules from foreign cells/viruses and activate defense response?

Receptor Molecules

5

Molecular recognition is

Specific binding of immune receptor to foreign molecules

6

Two types of molecular recognition:

1. Innate Immunity

2. Adaptive Immunity

7

Lymphatic system includes

card image

Lymphatic Vessels

Lymphoid organs

8

Three functions contribute to homeostasis

1. Returning excess tissue fluid to the bloodstream

2. Absorbing fats from the digestive tract and transporting them to the bloodstream

3. Helps defend the body against disease (Surveillance system)

9

Fluid inside lymphatic vessel is called

LYMPH that consists of water and solutes

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What is found in most areas of the body?

Lymphatic capillaries

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Lymphatic capillaries' s structure

Small, closed-ended vessels

12

Lymphoid organs contain

Large numbers of white blood cells known as Lymphocytes

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2 Types of lymphocytes

B lymphocytes (B cell)

T Lymphocytes (T cell)

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Where do Lymphocytes develop and mature?

In the primary lymphoid organs (bone marrow & Thumus)

15

Where do lymphocytes become activated?

In the secondary lymphoid organs (Spleen & Lymph nodes)

16

Red bone marrow:

*Site of blood cell production from stem cells

*B and T cells produced in bone marrow

*B cells mature in the bone marrow

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Thymus gland:

*T cells migrate from bone marrow and mature in Thymus

*T cells that capable of reacting to the body's own cells undergo apoptosis

* Only 5% of T cells leave the thymus

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In the lymphatic system, large vessels carry:

The Lymph into the thoracic and Lymphatic duct

19

Larger lymphatic vessel structure

  • Valves prevent backflow
  • Movement of lymph is dependent on skeletal muscle contractions just like the venous system
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What is Edema?

  • Localized swelling caused by accumulation of fluids in the tissues
  • Too much fluid made and/or not enough being drained
21

Bone marrow in children

  • Most bones contain red bone marrow
22

Bone marrow in Adult

Present only in the bones of:

  • Sternum
  • Ribs
  • Clavicle
  • Pelvic bones
  • Vertebral column
23

Spleen's function in secondary lymphatic organs

card image
  • Mostly red pulp that filters blood
  • White pulp is lymphatic tissue
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Lymph nodes' function in secondary lymphatic organs

card image
  • Cleanse lymph
  • Packed with B and T cells
  • Engulf pathogens
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what is Lysozyme

An enzyme that breaks down bacterial cell walls, further protects the insect digestive system

26

What is hemocytes?

  • Another name of immune cells
  • Circulatory fluid that travels throughout the body in the hemolymph
  • carry out phagocytosis
27

What are phagocytes?

  • include many types of white blood cells (such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, mast cells, anddendritic cells).
  • responsible for swallowing, killing and digesting invading microbes through the process of Phagocytosis
28

Phagocytosis?

the ingestion and digestion of foreign substances including bacteria

29

antimicrobial peptides

  • Is secreted by HEMOCYTES
  • Are short chains of amino acid
  • disrupt the plasma membranes of fungi and bacteria
30

exoskeleton

made of chitin forms the first barrier to pathogens

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Innate Immunity

  • present before any exposure to pathogens and is effective from the time of birth
  • responds to a broad range of pathogens
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Adaptive Immunity

  • Adaptive immunity, or acquired immunity, develops after exposure to agents such as microbes, toxins, or other foreign substances
  • It involves a very specific response to pathogens
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hemolymph

The circulating fluid in many invertebrates that is functionally similar to the blood and lymph of vertebrates, and consisting of free-floating cells (haemocytes).

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Plasmodium

The para-side of mosquitoes that cause malaria

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Fungus Neurosporacrassa

infects a fruit fly, pieces of the fungal cell wall bind a recognition protein

36

Bacterium Micrococcus luteus

infects a fly, distinct recognition protein is activated, and the fly produces a different set of antimicrobial peptides

37

Innate defenses include

barrier defenses, phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptides

38

unique aspects of vertebrates innate immunity

Natural killer cells, Interferons, and the inflammatory response

39

Barrier Defenses include

skin, mucus membranes of digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts

40

Mucus

viscous fluid that traps pathogens

41

Cellular Innate Defenses

Pathogens entering the mammalian body are subject to phagocytosis

42

How do phagocytic cells recognize groups of pathogens?

By using TLRs, Toll-like receptors

43

What is TLR ?

Recognize fragments of molecules found in bacteria, fungi, and viruses

44

TLR3

on the inner surface of endocytic vesciles, is the sensor for double-stranded RNA (viruses)

45

TLR4

of immune cell plasma membranes recognizes Lipopolysacharide

46

TLR5

Recognizes Flagellin, the main protein of bacterial flagella

47

TLR9

Recognizes CpG (DNA)

48

Types of phagocytic cells in the mammalian body

  • Neutrophils (blood)
  • Macrophages (big eaters)
  • Dendritic cells
  • Eosinophils
49

Neutrophils (blood)

  • The most abundant of whute blood cells, limitting their life span to few days
  • engulf and destroy pathogens
50

Macrophages (big eaters)

  • are found throughout the body
  • functions in innate immunity by destroying microbes, in adaptive immunity as an antigen presenting cell
51

Dendritic cells

  • (skin, contact external environment) stimulate development of adaptive immunity
  • An antigen-presenting cell located mainly in lymphatic tissues and skin, initiating a primary immune response
52

Eosinophils

  • (beneath mucosal surfaces) discharge destructive enzymes to parasites
53

Natural Killer (NK) cells

  • A type of white blood cell that can kill a tumor cells and virus-infected cells, circulate through the body and detect abnormal array of surface proteins
  • release chemicals leading to cell death, inhibiting the spread of virally infected or cancerous cells
54

Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteins

  • Peptides and proteins function in innate defense by attacking pathogens or impeding their reproduction
  • Damaging broad groups of pathogens by disrupting membranes
55

Interferon

proteins provide innate defense, interfering with viruses and helping activate macrophages

56

Complement System

About 30 proteins in blood plasma, which causes lysis of invading cells and helps trigger inflammation