Oxygenation and Perfusion Chp 38 Taylor

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1

adventitious alveoli

small air sacs at the end of the terminal bronchioles that are the site of gas exchange

2

angina

a temporary imbalance between the amount of oxygen needed by the heart and the amount delivered to the heart muscles

3

arterial blood gas

a diagnostic test examining arterial blood; used to determine the pressure exerted by oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood

4

atelectasis

incomplete expansion or collapse of a part of the lungs

5

atria

upper chambers of the heart

6

atrioventricular bundle

a bundle of modified heart muscle that transmit the cardiac impulse from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles causing them to contract

7

atrioventricular node (AV)

a node of specialized heart muscle located in the septal wall of the right atrium; receives impulses from the senatorial node and transmits them to the atrioventricular bundle

8

bradypnea

slow rate of breathing

9

bronchial

those heard over the trachea; high in pitch and intensity, with expiration being longer that inspiration

10

bronchodialator

medication that relaxes contractions of smooth muscles of the bronchioles

11

bronchovericualr

normal breath sounds heard over the upper anterior chest and intercostal area

12

capnography

a method to monitor ventilation and indirectly blood flow through the lungs

13

cardiopulmonary

relating to the heart and lungs

14

cardiovascular

relating to the heart and blood vessels

15

cilia

microscopic, hair like projections that propel mucus toward the upper airway so that it can be expectorated

16

circulation crackles

fine, crackling sounds made as air moves through wet secretion in the lungs

17

diffusion

tendency of solutes to move freely throughout a solvent from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until equilibrium is established

18

dry powder inhaler (DPI)

types of breath activated delivery methods for inhaled medications

19

dyspnea

difficult or labored breathing

20

dysrhythmia

an abnormal cardiac rhythm

21

electrocardiogram (ECG)

graphic record produced by the electrocardiograph

22

endotracheal tube

polyvinyl-chloride airway that is inserted through the nose or the mouth into the trachea, using a laryngoscope as a guide

23

expiration

act of breathing out; synonym is exhalation

24

hemothorax

blood that develops in the pleural space

25

hyperventilation

condition in which there is more than the normal amount of air entering and leaving the lungs

26

hypoventilation

decreased rate or depth of air movement into the lungs

27

hypoxemia

deficient oxygenation of blood

28

hypoxia

inadequate amount of oxygen available to the cells

29

inspiration

the act of breathing in ; inhalation

30

internal respiration

exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the circulating blood and tissue cells

31

ischemia

deficiency of blood in a particular area

32

metered dose inhaler (MDI)

instrument that delivers a controlled dose of medication to narrowed airways with each compression of the canister

33

myocardial infarction

one type of acute coronary syndrome characterized by the death of heart tissue due to lack of oxygen; also known as a heart attack

34

nasal cannula

disposable plastic device that delivers oxygen via two protruding prongs for insertion into the nostrils

35

nebulizer

instrument that disperses fine particles of medication into the deeper passages of the respiratory tract where absorption occurs

36

oxygenation

the process of providing cells life-sustaining oxygen

37

pacemaker

another name for the sinoatrial (SA) node; initiates the transmission of electrical impulses, causing contraction of the heart at regular intervals

38

perfusion

process by which oxygenated blood passes through body tissues

39

pleural effusion

fluid in the pleural space

40

pleural friction rub

continuous, dry grating sound caused by inflammation of pleural surfaces and loss of lubricating pleural fluid

41

pneumothorax

air in the pleural space

42

pulmonary ventilation

movement of air into and out of the lungs

43

pulse oximetry

noninvasive technique that measures the oxygen saturation (SaO2) of arterial blood

44

respiration

gas exchange between the atmospheric air in the alveoli and blood in the capillaries

45

sinoartrial node (SA)

a mass of tissue in the upper right atrium, just below the opening of the superior vena cava, that initiates the transmission of electrical impulses, causing contraction of the heart at regular intervals; also known as the pacemaker

46

spirometer

instrument used to measure lung capacities and volumes; one type is used to encourage deep breathing

47

sputum

respiratory secretion expelled by coughing or clearing the throat

48

surfactant

detergent like phospholipid that reduces surface tension of the fluid lining the alveoli

49

tachypnea

rapid rate of breathing

50

thoracentesis

aspiration of fluid or air from the pleural space

51

tracheostomy

artificial opening made in the trachea through which a tracheostomy tube is inserted

52

ventricles

lower chambers of the heart

53

wheezes

continuous high pitched squeak or musical sound made as air moves through narrowed or partially obstructed airway passages