Activity 6: Cell Division and Identifying the Mitotic Stages

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1

Cell division in all cells other than bacteria consists of what two events?

Mitosis and cytokinesis

2

What is mitosis?

Division of the copied DNA of the mother cell to two daughter nuclei.

3

What is cytokinesis?

The division of the cytoplasm.

4

What is the product of mitosis?

Two daughter nuclei that are genetically identical to the mother nucleus.

5

What is meiosis?

A type of nuclear division that occurs only in the reproductive organs.

6

How is meiosis different from mitosis?

Meiosis yields four daughter nuclei that differ genetically from the mother nucleus and is only used for producing gametes for sexual reproduction.

7

What are the 2 functions of the cell division?

1. Increase the number of cells for growth.

2. Increase the number of cells for repair.

8

Most cells divide until which event in a person's life?

Puberty.

9

After puberty, which 2 certain cell type retains the ability to carry out cell division routinely?

1. Epithelial cells of the skin.

2. Cells of the gut lining.

10

Which particular cell population stop dividing after puberty, but retain the ability to divide during injury?

Liver cells.

11

Which 3 cell types lose the almost completely lose the ability to divide?

1. Skeletal muscle

2. Cardiac muscle

3. Mature neurons

12

Interphase is the period of a cell's life when what two events occur?

1. Metabolic activities

2. Growth

13

Is interphase a phase of mitosis?

No.

14

During interphase, DNA is in which form?

Chromatin

15

Are the nuclear envelope and nucleolus present during interphase?

Yes.

16

What are the 3 periods of interphase and describe them?

1. G1: Centrioles begin replicating.

2. S: DNA replicated.

3. G2: Centrioles finish replicating, and final preparations for mitosis are completed.

17

Name the four phases of mitosis in order.

1. Prophase

2. Metaphase

3. Anaphase

4. Telophase

18

In early prophase, what happens to the chromatin?

The chromatin condenses into chromosomes.

19

In early prophase, each duplicated chromosome consists of two identical __________ held together at the __________.

Sister chromatids, centromere

20

In early prophase, once the chromosomes appear and the ________ disappear, the two ________ separate.

Nucleoli, centrosomes

21

In early prophase, the centrosomes act as areas of growth for a microtubule assembly called what?

Mitotic spindle

22

In early prophase, as the microtubules lengthen, what happens to the centrosomes?

They get propelled toward opposite ends of the cell.

23

In early prophase, what extends from the centrosome matrix?

Asters

24

In late prophase, the _______ breaks up, allowing the ________ to interact with the _________.

Nuclear envelop, spindle, chromosomes

25

In late prophase, some of the growing spindle microtubules attach to ________ at each chromosome's _________.

Kinetochores, centromere

26

In late prophase...

1. The remaining microtubules not attached to any chromosomes are called what?

2. The sliding of microtubules forces what apart?

1. Nonkinetochore microtubules.

2. The poles.

27

In late prophase, how are the chromosomes drawn to the center of the cell?

The kinetochore microtubules pull on each chromosome from both poles in a tug-of-war fashion.

28

In metaphase, where are the two centrosomes located in the cell?

Opposite poles.

29

1. In metaphase, how are the chromosomes aligned?

2. The imaginary plane between the poles is called what?

1. They are clustered at the midline of the cell, with their centromeres aligned at the equator.

2. Metaphase plate

30

In metaphase, what tries to separate the chromatids from each other?

Enzymes.

31

When does anaphase begin?

As the centromeres are split simultaneously.

32

In anaphase, how are the separated chromosomes pulled toward the poles?

The kinetochore microtubules pull each chromosome toward the poles.

33

In anaphase, at the same time, as the chromosomes are being pulled toward the poles, the two poles of the cell are also pushed apart by what process?

Nonkinetochore microtubules sliding past each other.

34

In anaphase, the moving chromosomes look like what shape?

V-shaped

35

In anaphase particularly, why are chromosomes advantageous over chromatin?

The short, compact shape of the chromosomes makes it easier for them to move and separate.

36

When does telophase begin?

As soon as chromosomal movement stops.

37

In telophase, the chromosomes at opposite poles do what?

Uncoil and resume their chromatin form.

38

In telophase, the _____ forms around each chromatin mass, ______ reappear within the nuclei, and the ______ disappears.

Nuclear envelope, nucleoli, mitotic spindle

39

In late telophase, mitosis is complete. The cell, however, has two of what and how are they related to the original mother nucleus?

Two nuclei and they are identical to the mother nucleus.

40

Define cytokinesis.

The division of cytoplasm.

41

1. Cytokinesis begins during what phase and continues through and beyond what phase?

2. During cytokinesis, what forms that pinches the cell apart into two separate ones?

1. Late anaphase, telophase

2. Cleavage furrow.

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